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T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson, and H.E. Carney

In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis, short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts. Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Art, process, archaeology

This book presents a study of material images and asks how an appreciation of the making and unfolding of images and art alters archaeological accounts of prehistoric and historic societies. With contributions focusing on case studies including prehistoric Britain, Scandinavia, Iberia, the Americas and Dynastic Egypt, and including contemporary reflections on material images, it makes a novel contribution to ongoing debates relating to archaeological art and images. The book offers a New Materialist analysis of archaeological imagery, with an emphasis on considering the material character of images and their making and unfolding. The book reassesses the predominantly representational paradigm of archaeological image analysis and argues for the importance of considering the ontology of images. It considers images as processes or events and introduces the verb ‘imaging’ to underline the point that images are conditions of possibility that draw together differing aspects of the world. The book is divided into three sections: ‘Emergent images’, which focuses on practices of making; ‘Images as process’, which examines the making and role of images in prehistoric societies; and ‘Unfolding images’, which focuses on how images change as they are made and circulated. The book features contributions from archaeologists, Egyptologists, anthropologists and artists. The contributors to the book highlight the multiple role of images in prehistoric and historic societies, demonstrating that archaeologists need to recognise the dynamic and changeable character of images.

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Scientific disciplines in the museum
Samuel J.M.M. Alberti

projects such as plant ecology, which drew upon and perpetuated natural history practices.4 Thanks to the demands of medical education for life science instruction, zoology and botany were now firmly established in the syllabuses of British higher education establishments, which boasted chairs in life and earth sciences.5 This was especially the case in the English civic colleges that were soon to be chartered as independent universities, of which Owens College was prominent. The combination of academic demand and popular interest fuelled natural history posts at

in Nature and culture
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Ing-Marie Back Danielsson and Andrew Meirion Jones

unusual source: the affective ecology of plants. Carla Hustak and Natasha Myers (2012) discuss the way in which insect pollinators and plants, particularly orchids, are mutually entangled. Drawing on Darwin’s early work on bee pollination amongst orchids, Hustak and Myers argue against Neo-Darwinian ‘sexual deception’ hypotheses: the idea that visually and chemically orchids lure bees to them in order to disperse pollen by deceptive mimicry. As they note, these accounts are unable to ‘admit play, pleasure or improvisation within or among species’ (Hustak and Myers 2012

in Images in the making
Scandinavian Late Iron Age gold foil figures through the lens of intra-action
Ing-Marie Back Danielsson

enhance, facilitate and/or renegotiate memories of different kinds and on different levels. These prolonged meetings may further have stimulated and invited what Hustak and Myers (2012: 77–8) call affective ecologies that could have included play, pleasure and improvisation (see also Jones and Cochrane 2018: 49–50, but also Deleuze and Guattari 1988: 12 on the symbiotic becoming of the wasp/orchid unit). The possible playfulness may also have been instigated by the material properties of the metal gold itself. The metal is extremely ductile. As one of the most

in Images in the making
Open Access (free)
Melanie Giles

’. The book will also think differently about the bog, too often seen as a marginal place or cultural backwater, with pejorative associations. Their ecology might be restricted but the environmental and archaeological evidence suggests that such peatlands were wet clots of life: seething with rather strange inhabitants, fuelling both household needs and spiritual beliefs, endowed with the power of appearing to hold death in stasis. In sum, the book seeks to humanise but contextualise the dead who come from its depths, setting them back within the wider martial

in Bog bodies
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Ian Dawson

(2005). Media Ecologies. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Gombrich, E.H. (1995). Shadows: The Depiction of Cast Shadows in Western Art. London: National Galleries Publications. Hatherley, O. (2009). Militant Modernism. Arlesford: John Hunt Publishing. Hofstader, D. (2007). Strange Loops. New York: Basic Books. Jones, A., A. Cochrane, C. Carter, I. Dawson, M. Díaz-Guardamino and L. Minkin. (2015). ‘Digital imaging and prehistoric imagery: a new analysis of the Folkton Drums’, Antiquity 89 (347), 1083–95. Jones, J. and N. Smith. (2017). ‘The strange case of Dame Mary May

in Images in the making
The carved stone balls of Northeast Scotland
Andrew Meirion Jones

.scottishheritagehub.com/content/scarf-neolithic-panel-report. Accessed 6 June 2018. Sontag, S. (2009 [1961]). Against Interpretation and Other Essays. London: Penguin. Star, S.L. and J.R. Griesemer. (1989). ‘Institutional ecology, translations, and boundary objects: amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 1907–39’, Social Studies of Science 19 (2), 387–420. Stoichita, V.I. (1997). A Short History of the Shadow. London: Reaktion. Van Gijn, A. (2010). Flint in Focus. Lithic Biographies in the Neolithic and Bronze Age. Leiden: Sidestone Press.

in Images in the making
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Museum historiographies
Samuel J.M.M. Alberti

: Geographies of Scientific Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003); S. Naylor (ed.), ‘Historical Geographies of Science’, special issue, British Journal for the History of Science 38 (2005), 1–100. T. F. Gieryn, Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999), p. 12; see also Gieryn, ‘What buildings do’, Theory and Society, Introduction: museum historiographies 14 15 16 17 18 19 9 31 (2002), 35–74; S. L. Star and J. R. Griesemer, ‘Institutional ecology, “translations” and boundary objects: amateurs

in Nature and culture
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Tangible engagements in the making and ‘remaking’ of prehistoric rock art
Lara Bacelar Alves

particularly interesting for the study of past human societies as it is the study of both the past and present relationships between climate and the distribution of living beings on Earth (Aguiar 2008). It incorporates knowledge from sciences like biology, geology, ecology, bioclimatology and phytosociology and one of its fundamental aims is to establish typological hierarchical models of the territory known as eco-regions based on biomes, that is ecological communities sharing climatic conditions and geological features that support species with similar life and adaptation

in Images in the making