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The well-being of Europe’s citizens depends less on individual consumption and more on their social consumption of essential goods and services – from water and retail banking to schools and care homes – in what we call the foundational economy. Individual consumption depends on market income, while foundational consumption depends on social infrastructure and delivery systems of networks and branches, which are neither created nor renewed automatically, even as incomes increase. This historically created foundational economy has been wrecked in the last generation by privatisation, outsourcing, franchising and the widespread penetration of opportunistic and predatory business models. The distinctive, primary role of public policy should therefore be to secure the supply of basic services for all citizens (not a quantum of economic growth and jobs). Reconstructing the foundational has to start with a vision of citizenship that identifies foundational entitlements as the conditions for dignified human development, and likewise has to depend on treating the business enterprises central to the foundational economy as juridical persons with claims to entitlements but also with responsibilities and duties. If the aim is citizen well-being and flourishing for the many not the few, then European politics at regional, national and EU level needs to be refocused on foundational consumption and securing universal minimum access and quality. If/when government is unresponsive, the impetus for change has to come from engaging citizens locally and regionally in actions which break with the top down politics of ‘vote for us and we will do this for you’.

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Frugality, de-growth and Voluntary Simplicity
Alison Hulme

reform of economic or political systems. In such discourses the central 94 94 A brief history of thrift motif of reconciling the tensions between technology and ecology, economic growth and ecology, and competitive market and ecology becomes one of the correct employment of smart technology and ‘win-​win strategies’ (Milne et al., 2006). Such suggestions however, have come with severe criticisms, particularly from those who argue it is precisely economic growth that needs to be called into question (see Trainer, 2000; Carruthers, 2001; de Geus, 2003; Milne et

in A brief history of thrift
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Simplicity, sensuality and politics in Henry Thoreau
Alison Hulme

” and “nature”, but over time he came to see the natural and social worlds as integrated and inseparable’ (2004:105–​106). It is important to recognise that this was within the context of the times, in which the existing idealist notion of creation was competing against the emergent materialist theory of evolution. Thoreau had been moving towards Darwin’s argument throughout the 1850s, with the publication of his writing on scientific ecology such as ‘The Dispersion of Seeds’ and ‘The Succession of Forest Trees’ (now published as part of Wild Fruits). In 1859, he

in A brief history of thrift
Problems of polysemy and idealism
Andrew Sayer

, Sage. Marquand, D (1988), The Unprincipled Society, London, Fontana. Marx, K. (1975), Early Writings (Harmondsworth: Penguin). Misztal, B. A. (1996), Trust in Modern Societies, Cambridge, Polity. Offe, C. and Heinz, R. G. (1992), Beyond Employment, trans. A. Braley, Cambridge, Polity. O’Neill, J. (1994), Ecology, Policy and Politics, London, Routledge. Polanyi, K. (1944), The Great Transformation, New York, Beacon Press. Rothstein, B. (no date), ‘Trust, social dilemmas and collective memories’, mimeo. Sanghera, B. S. (1998), ‘The social embeddedness of markets: the

in Market relations and the competitive process
The Foundation Economy Collective

service delivery. But there is the need to be unsentimental about the scope for these alternatives when the foundational economy is also characterised by an ecology of private enterprise, and is likely to remain so given the expense of extending public ownership with compensation and the difficulty of creating capable, large co-operatives. Equally, the issue is not ownership per se but, firstly, the interaction of ownership and business model in specific activities and, secondly, whether that contributes to Renewing the foundational 141 the only end that matters

in Foundational economy
Joe Earle, Cahal Moran, and Zach Ward-Perkins

-are-blind-to-the-limitsof-growth (accessed 24 April 2016). 42 Herman E. Daly, Ecological Economics and the Ecology of Economics: Essays in Criticism, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar, 1999. 43 The Equality Trust, ‘How has inequality changed?’, 2016. Available at: https://www.equalitytrust.org.uk/how-has-inequality-changed (accessed 24 April 2016). 44 John Gapper, ‘Capitalism: in search of balance – FT.Com’, Financial Times, 23 December 2013. Available at: http://www.ft.com/cms/ s/0/4a0b8168-6bc0-11e3-a216-00144feabdc0.html#axzz46k4tODTg (accessed 24 April 2016). 45 Amartya Sen and James E. Foster, On

in The econocracy
The resurgence of Route 128 in Massachusetts
Michael H. Best

advances a region’s unique technological capabilities. The regional process of technology capability advance will likely involve a succession of firms, with new firms building on advances made by previous innovators. A region’s technological capabilities are like a seabed, or an industrial ecology, in which entrepreneurial firms are spawned, grow, flourish and die. At the same time, however, entrepreneurial firms, driven by a technology capability and market opportunity dynamic, are forever advancing their own capabilities. In the process, the region’s technological

in Market relations and the competitive process
Brototi Roy and Francesca Rhys-Williams

stresses of the people and the ecology, making it an [un]inhabitable place . 56 This case of the coal mines in Talabira depicts the difference of values between the villagers and the mine operators. For the villagers, the forest is more than an economic means; it is a part of their culture and heritage (as

in Reclaiming economics for future generations