T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson, and H.E. Carney
In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of
DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis,
short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem
repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular
microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts.
Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence
of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article
discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the
forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published
supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the
need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards
state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent
successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.
communications in the future. But we know that, in our new information ecology, trust is more
vital than ever before. We must support media institutions and citizens as they seek out
Allcott , H. and
M. ( 2017 ),
‘ Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election ’,
Journal of Economic Perspectives , 31 : 2 ,
211 – 36 .
H. ( 2017 ),
‘ Media Perspectives: A Means to an End? Creating a Market for
Humanitarian News from Africa
of selfhood and right to participate in this world. Moreover, violence is absolutely integral to the markings of subjectivity, setting apart claims about identity, along with notions of civility and barbarism. Violence is always mediated through expressed dichotomies between acceptable and unacceptable behaviours, between the right to punish and the intolerable transgression, between the force of normative law and the terror of the minority. In fact, there is an entire political ecology at work in the very diagnosis of something as political violence in itself
Redfield , P.
( 2015 ), ‘ Medical
Vulnerability, or Where There is No Kit ’,
Limn , Issue 5: Ebola’s Ecologies, https://limn.it/articles/medical-vulnerability-or-where-there-is-no-kit/
: Médecins Sans
Frontières (MSF) ).
Holling , C.
S. ( 1973 ),
‘ Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems ’,
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics , 4 ,
1 – 23 .
Hosein , G. and
C . ( 2013 ), Aiding
Surveillance: An Exploration of How Development and Humanitarian Aid Initiatives are Enabling
Surveillance in Developing Countries ( London :
Privacy International ).
HPG ( 2018 ), A Design Experiment:
Imagining Alternative Humanitarian Action
infrastructure. I examine first fixed
then mobile regulation, including fixed-to-mobile termination, which we
will see is vital to the communications ecology and explains many of the
attempts to breach net neutrality by blocking rivals to the incumbents.
I now briefly explain the fixed network market of UK
communications. It is characterised by wholesale duopoly
, author of the Railways Act
1844, the model of modern communications legislation. 85 This section may appear to consist
of nineteenth-century ‘train spotting’ at first glance,
but it is essential to realise that Internet access in the twenty-first
century is comparable to railways in the nineteenth: it transforms
economy, society and ecology in extraordinary ways. Internet access,
like train access, is
V. Shiva, Women, Ecology and Economic
Globalisation: Searching for an Alternative Vision (New
Delhi, Indian Association of Women’s Studies, 1995) at
E.g. R. Krut, Globalization and Civil
Society: NGO Influence in International Decision-Making (New
Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, States are entitled to claim four maritime zones off their coasts (territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf) within which they have sovereignty, sovereign rights or jurisdiction, as explained in chapters four, seven, eight and nine. The outer limits of these four zones are, respectively, twelve, twenty-four, 200 and up to 350 nautical miles. Those distances are measured from what is known as the ‘baseline’. The latter is normally the low-water line. However, in certain circumstances other lines may be used as the baseline. This chapter explains how the low-water line is determined and the circumstances in which other lines may be used as the baseline. Such lines include those connecting the outermost points on coasts that are deeply indented and/or fringed with islands and those drawn across the mouths of bays, rivers and harbour entrances. The chapter also considers the role of islands in the application of baselines, as well as the effect on baselines of predicted increases in sea levels.
single maritime boundary was delimited by a court, the ICJ
stressed that since it was delimiting a boundary for both the seabed and
the superjacent water column, circumstances would only be relevant if
they related to both. Circumstances that related only to one, such as
the geomorphology of the seabed or the ecology of the water column,
would not be relevant. 134
This approach has been followed in