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T.K. Ralebitso-Senior, T.J.U. Thompson, and H.E. Carney

In the mid-1990s, the crime scene toolkit was revolutionised by the introduction of DNA-based analyses such as the polymerase chain reaction, low copy number DNA analysis, short-tandem repeat typing, pulse-field gel electrophoresis and variable number tandem repeat. Since then, methodological advances in other disciplines, especially molecular microbial ecology, can now be adapted for cutting-edge applications in forensic contexts. Despite several studies and discussions, there is, however, currently very little evidence of these techniques adoption at the contemporary crime scene. Consequently, this article discusses some of the popular omics and their current and potential exploitations in the forensic ecogenomics of body decomposition in a crime scene. Thus, together with published supportive findings and discourse, knowledge gaps are identified. These then justify the need for more comprehensive, directed, concerted and global research towards state-of-the-art microecophysiology method application and/or adaptation for subsequent successful exploitations in this additional context of microbial forensics.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Mel Bunce

communications in the future. But we know that, in our new information ecology, trust is more vital than ever before. We must support media institutions and citizens as they seek out trustworthy sources. Bibliography Allcott , H. and Gentzkow , M. ( 2017 ), ‘ Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election ’, Journal of Economic Perspectives , 31 : 2 , 211 – 36 . Aly , H. ( 2017 ), ‘ Media Perspectives: A Means to an End? Creating a Market for Humanitarian News from Africa

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

of selfhood and right to participate in this world. Moreover, violence is absolutely integral to the markings of subjectivity, setting apart claims about identity, along with notions of civility and barbarism. Violence is always mediated through expressed dichotomies between acceptable and unacceptable behaviours, between the right to punish and the intolerable transgression, between the force of normative law and the terror of the minority. In fact, there is an entire political ecology at work in the very diagnosis of something as political violence in itself

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Positioning, Politics and Pertinence
Natalie Roberts

5 October 2021 ). Redfield , P. ( 2015 ), ‘ Medical Vulnerability, or Where There is No Kit ’, Limn , Issue 5: Ebola’s Ecologies, https://limn.it/articles/medical-vulnerability-or-where-there-is-no-kit/ (accessed 5 October 2021

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Governing Precarity through Adaptive Design
Mark Duffield

: Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) ). Holling , C. S. ( 1973 ), ‘ Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems ’, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics , 4 , 1 – 23 . Hosein , G. and Nyst , C . ( 2013 ), Aiding Surveillance: An Exploration of How Development and Humanitarian Aid Initiatives are Enabling Surveillance in Developing Countries ( London : Privacy International ). HPG ( 2018 ), A Design Experiment: Imagining Alternative Humanitarian Action

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Christopher T. Marsden

infrastructure. I examine first fixed then mobile regulation, including fixed-to-mobile termination, which we will see is vital to the communications ecology and explains many of the attempts to breach net neutrality by blocking rivals to the incumbents. Fixed network regulation I now briefly explain the fixed network market of UK communications. It is characterised by wholesale duopoly

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Neutrality, discrimination and common carriage
Christopher T. Marsden

, author of the Railways Act 1844, the model of modern communications legislation. 85 This section may appear to consist of nineteenth-century ‘train spotting’ at first glance, but it is essential to realise that Internet access in the twenty-first century is comparable to railways in the nineteenth: it transforms economy, society and ecology in extraordinary ways. Internet access, like train access, is

in Network neutrality
Abstract only
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

. 269 V. Shiva, Women, Ecology and Economic Globalisation: Searching for an Alternative Vision (New Delhi, Indian Association of Women’s Studies, 1995) at 4–5. 270 E.g. R. Krut, Globalization and Civil Society: NGO Influence in International Decision-Making (New

in The boundaries of international law
Abstract only

Under the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, States are entitled to claim four maritime zones off their coasts (territorial sea, contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf) within which they have sovereignty, sovereign rights or jurisdiction, as explained in chapters four, seven, eight and nine. The outer limits of these four zones are, respectively, twelve, twenty-four, 200 and up to 350 nautical miles. Those distances are measured from what is known as the ‘baseline’. The latter is normally the low-water line. However, in certain circumstances other lines may be used as the baseline. This chapter explains how the low-water line is determined and the circumstances in which other lines may be used as the baseline. Such lines include those connecting the outermost points on coasts that are deeply indented and/or fringed with islands and those drawn across the mouths of bays, rivers and harbour entrances. The chapter also considers the role of islands in the application of baselines, as well as the effect on baselines of predicted increases in sea levels.

in The law of the sea

single maritime boundary was delimited by a court, the ICJ stressed that since it was delimiting a boundary for both the seabed and the superjacent water column, circumstances would only be relevant if they related to both. Circumstances that related only to one, such as the geomorphology of the seabed or the ecology of the water column, would not be relevant. 134 This approach has been followed in

in The law of the sea