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Joseph Hardwick

clergymen-scientists, William Branwhite Clarke and William Woolls, both of whom can be described as evangelicals. 98 In the 1870s Clarke and Woolls argued that deforestation, carried on by reckless white settlers, had lessened rainfall, increased temperatures and made droughts more frequent and severe. Woolls had a strong sense of ecology and the ‘balance of nature’: the idea that God’s providential design was perfect, and that the removal or destruction of a species would have dangerous results. In an often-cited 1876 address to

in Prayer, providence and empire
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Joseph Hardwick

this book has suggested is that the advent of representative government helped contemporaries imagine their new societies as unities and communities. Indeed, colonial democracy gave new life to the old concept of ‘national sin’. It was, for instance, an idea deployed by those who believed colonial voters shared responsibility for harming – if not destroying – environments, ecologies and indigenous peoples and cultures. Most of all, special worship retained popularity because such occasions – and providential

in Prayer, providence and empire
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Joseph Hardwick

with unstable ecologies and variable climates. South African authorities also appointed days of prayer to calm anxious settlers. There is a misconception among some South African historians that English-speaking communities resisted providential explanations, as well as days of prayer and humiliation. Mordechai Tamarkin’s argument that the pressure for days of humiliation in times of cattle disease and drought came almost entirely from Afrikaner farmers is not born out by the evidence. Numerous English-language newspapers

in Prayer, providence and empire
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Changing ministries
Carmen Mangion

environment came to the fore as a ‘Green nun’ involved in the Renewing the Earth Campaign, Christian Ecology Link and Operation Noah. 11 Sister M. Philip Rendall’s experience is perhaps not typical, but it is one of many that demonstrate a personal shift in religious ministries, where the local and global were integrated as sisters and nuns began to identify themselves as ‘citizens of the world’. This process, of course, was not without personal and community tensions. Rendall’s story began with the personal. First, her ministry came from an individual desire of ‘being

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age