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Steven King

1 The ecology of poor relief Overview On 18 July 1821 the overseer of Kingswood parish (Gloucestershire) received a letter from George Lewis of Bristol. Asking for ‘Some preasant relife’, Lewis claimed that he was sick and ‘allmost intirely from my Worck’. He was in a verrey Weacke State my self i have a verrrey Soare throat as i am afraide as i am getting the Same Disorder as my family we am harekening Every moment to be the Last of one Chyld the Lords best to put is end to its Breath the biges bot was tacken ill Later day Last which i have five that is very

in Sickness, medical welfare and the English poor, 1750–1834
Author: Steven King

This book explores the experiences of the sick poor between the 1750s and through the so-called crisis of the Old Poor Law ending in the 1830s. It provides a comprehensive and colourful overview of the nature, scale and negotiation of medical welfare. At its core stand the words and lives of the poor themselves, reconstructed in painstaking detail to show that medical welfare became a totemic issue for parochial authorities by the 1830s. The book suggests that the Old Poor Law confronted a rising tide of sickness by the early nineteenth century. While there are spectacular instances of parsimony and neglect in response to rising need, in most places and at most times, parish officers seem to have felt moral obligations to the sick. Indeed, we might construct their responses as considerate and generous. To some extent this reflected Christian paternalism but also other factors such as a growing sense that illness, even illness among the poor, was and should be remediable and a shared territory of negotiation between paupers, advocates and officials. The result was a canvas of medical welfare with extraordinary depth. By the 1820s, more of the ill-health of ordinary people was captured by the poor law and being doctored or sojourning in an institution became part of pauper and parochial expectation. These trends are brought to vivid life in the words of the poor and their advocates, such that the book genuinely offers a re-interpretation of the Old Poor Law from the bottom up.

Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

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Amy Milne-Smith

’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 67:1 (2012), pp. 94–119; Loughran, Shell-Shock and Medical Culture . 12 Y. Bhattacharjee, ‘Shell Shock Revisited: Solving the Puzzle of Blast Trauma’, Science 319:5862 (2008), pp. 406–8; C. Feudtner, ‘“Minds the Dead Have Ravished”: Shell Shock, History, and the Ecology of Disease-Systems’, History of Science 31:94 (1993), pp. 377–420; P. Leese, Shell Shock: Traumatic

in Out of his mind
Open Access (free)
Balancing the self in the twentieth century
Mark Jackson and Martin D. Moore

balance of nature, to identify the regions of the world (like vital organs in the body) that were most critical to the health of Gaia and to devise strategies for facilitating ecological balance. Lovelock's formulation of ecological homeostasis, like Cannon's model of homeostasis or Hans Selye's account of stress, represented the reincarnation of ancient notions of balance. The American historian of ecology Frank N. Egerton pointed out in 1973 that the origins of modern preoccupations with the ‘balance of nature’ could be traced

in Balancing the self
Hannah Worthen

and war widows in Essex, 1642–62’, Essex Archaeology and History, 32 (2001), 209–21. 13 D. J.  Appleby, ‘Veteran politics in Restoration England, 1660–1670’, The Seventeenth Century, 28:3 (2013), 323–42; M. Stoyle, ‘“Memories of the maimed”: the testimony of Charles I’s former soldiers, 1660–1730’, History, 88:290 (2003), 204–26. 14 J. S.  Morrill, ‘The ecology of allegiance in the English Revolution’, Journal of British Studies, 26:4 (1987), 466. 15 G. L.  Hudson, ‘Disabled veterans and the state in early modern England’, in D.  Gerber (ed.), Disabled

in Battle-scarred
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Health advice and medical culture on the edge of a volcano
Maria Conforti

island, also providing a lengthy catalogue of successful treatments for each locality. Jasolino’s case is also extremely interesting because his work, fastidiously listing the localities and features of a not very large area, shows the extent and the scale to which the discourse on airs, like the one on waters and places, could be local. Springs have obviously different mineral properties, but they (or better, the soil they are coming from) determine different ‘ecologies’ that can be known and Medical culture on the edge of a volcano 145 observed only by gathering

in Conserving health in early modern culture
Julian M. Simpson

. Marini, ‘Where did all the GPs go? Increasing supply and geographical equity in England and Scotland’, Journal of Health Services Research Policy, 15:1 (2010); P. L. Knox, ‘The intraurban ecology of primary medical care: Patterns of accessibility and their policy implications’, Environment and Planning A (1978). Much of the available evidence pertaining to this subject relates to England and Wales. The latter article suggests that the pattern of distribution of doctors may have been slightly different in Scotland with some deprived inner-​city areas being described as

in Migrant architects of the NHS
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In search of global health
Didier Fassin

. Glover , S. ( 2009 ) ‘ Review of “Mark Nichter: Global Health: Why Cultural Perceptions, Social Representations, and Biopolitics Matter” ’, Human Ecology , 37 ( 5 ), 669–670 . Gluckman , M. ( 1961 ) ‘ Ethnographic Data in British Social Anthropology ’, The Sociological Review 5–17 , 91. Janes , C. and K

in Global health and the new world order