communications in the future. But we know that, in our new information ecology, trust is more
vital than ever before. We must support media institutions and citizens as they seek out
Allcott , H. and
M. ( 2017 ),
‘ Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election ’,
Journal of Economic Perspectives , 31 : 2 ,
211 – 36 .
H. ( 2017 ),
‘ Media Perspectives: A Means to an End? Creating a Market for
Humanitarian News from Africa
of selfhood and right to participate in this world. Moreover, violence is absolutely integral to the markings of subjectivity, setting apart claims about identity, along with notions of civility and barbarism. Violence is always mediated through expressed dichotomies between acceptable and unacceptable behaviours, between the right to punish and the intolerable transgression, between the force of normative law and the terror of the minority. In fact, there is an entire political ecology at work in the very diagnosis of something as political violence in itself
: Médecins Sans
Frontières (MSF) ).
Holling , C.
S. ( 1973 ),
‘ Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems ’,
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics , 4 ,
1 – 23 .
Hosein , G. and
C . ( 2013 ), Aiding
Surveillance: An Exploration of How Development and Humanitarian Aid Initiatives are Enabling
Surveillance in Developing Countries ( London :
Privacy International ).
HPG ( 2018 ), A Design Experiment:
Imagining Alternative Humanitarian Action
changing moral and legal international ecology which provided the milieu
against which humanitarian intervention evolved. On the one hand then,
the location of war may be changing, as conflict dynamics reflect and react
to the changing international security environment. On the other hand, it
seems that both Kosovo and Chechnya were fought through first order technology, missile strikes, the air superiority of the Russian army and NATO
forces respectively, but also through militia and paramilitary groups, or the
social networks of clans and families and Diaspora
a way into re-reading the violence that erupted in post-Communist states
in the 1990s, especially when tied to globalisation and the hybridity of war
– generating another layer in the international security ecology.
Notable exceptions to this general rule exist. See V. Tishkov, Chechnya: Life in a
War-Torn Society (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2004).
P. Ricoeur, Oneself As Another (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992),
Ibid., p. 141.
E. Ringmar, Identity, Interest, Action: A Cultural Explanation
a state of satisfaction with efforts made or goals achieved. It is, in many ways, tied to esteem.
Redemption: the NATO intervention in Kosovo
Some academics have argued that during this period political leaders such
as Tony Blair increasingly recognised that the processes of globalisation had
created a Western late-modern international security ecology which was
premised on the possibility of ‘integrating civil societies into a cosmopolitan
system’.75 In other words, ‘Blair argued that the Kosovo war was fought to
protect civilisation, he was arguing that this was
strategy’. In L. Panitch and M. Konings,
eds, American Empire and the Political Economy of Global Finance. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan,
2008, pp. 211 and 199, respectively.
91 Antonio Gramsci, passage from the Notes on Machiavelli, in Selections from the Prison Notebooks,
p. 80n49. See Dizionario Gramsciano 1926–
1937 [ed. Guido Liguori and Pasquale Voza].
Rome: Carocci, 2009, p. 167, ‘corruzione’.
92 See Peter Newell, Globalization and the Environment: Capitalism, Ecology and Power. Cambridge: Polity
Press, 2012, especially the chapter ‘Global finance and the
progressive Eurasian perspective, the Trans-Eurasian Development
Corridor (TBER in Russian). It projects new cities laid out along integral energy transport highways, and adopts a much more positive view of the role of Japanese, German
and Italian assistance in realising this project. These countries are seen as necessary to
supply the know-how and finance in order to realise a vision that originates in Russian
fundamental ecology and philosophy (e.g. theories of the biosphere and the noösphere),
but which lacks an applied science and technology dimension.98
There were no
UN peacekeeping and the end of the Cold War 1988–91
communist governments with democratically elected ones.10
Together, these two political groups toiled to forge a new understanding of the
threats to global security after the Cold War and the potential role of multidimensional peacekeeping operations in dealing with these threats. Both groups
envisioned a world that abides by international law, and in which the UN is the
main implementer of this law. In this world order, the sustainability of the ecology and economy were considered as important as security issues. In this new
vision, it was important to deter aggressors
ministers Shvayka (agriculture) and Mokhnyk (ecology) and a host of other, lesser functionaries. This was primarily to ensure that a new instalment of IMF money was paid
out. Ukraine was also granted a 20 per cent ‘haircut’ of its external debt, amounting to
savings of $3 billion –a gift to a non-member state that contrasts painfully to the merciless treatment of EU member Greece. Ukraine’s military expenditure almost doubled
compared to 2013, haemorrhaging a state budget already indebted to the tune of 95
per cent of GDP.167
In July 2015, the head of