The book analyzes capitalism’s growing destructiveness and the cost–benefit contradiction it generates. Its new conception of the surplus, which recognizes not just capitalist businesses but also households and the public sector as sites of surplus production, links capitalism’s destructiveness to that system’s use of the surplus. Capital’s use of the surplus turns scientific knowledge and technique into forces of destruction, and the book illustrates this dynamic by making reference to the growth of a consumerist culture, to massive military spending, and to other technologies that fuel a deepening ecological crisis. This crisis, along with economic and public health crises as well as a crisis of political democracy, are also analyzed as being intimately linked to capitalism’s use of the surplus. It is capitalism’s undemocratic control of the surplus by capitalist elites, moreover, that ultimately leads to the cost–benefit contradiction of contemporary societies: the futility of our consumerist culture no longer translates productive development into correspondingly growing human well-being, while the simultaneous growth of capitalism’s forces of destruction increasingly endangers human beings and the planet. Thus, this contradiction creates the potential for an opposition to capitalism and its exploitative and destructive nature by a wide range of social movements, both “old” (such as the labor and socialist movements) and “new” (for example, the feminist, anti-racist, ecological, and peace movements). To address capitalism’s contradiction, a democratic classless society is required, but the book also analyzes how capitalism’s operation obstructs the formation of an anti-capitalist coalition fighting for such an alternative.
: Curaç ao in the Early Modern Atlantic World (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012).
7 E.g. J. R. McNeill, Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620–1914 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010); D. Wheat, Atlantic Africa and the Spanish Caribbean, 1570–1640 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2016); E. Bassi, An Aqueous Territory: Sailor Geographies and New Granada’s Transimperial Greater Caribbean World (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2016).
8 B. Ward, M. Bone
, Policy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 75–102 .
27 J. Arquilla and D. F. Ronfeldt, Swarming and the Future of Conflict (Santa Monica: RAND National Defense Research Institute, 2000) ; J. Kosek, ‘Ecologies of the empire: On the new uses of the honeybee’, Cultural Anthropology , 25:4 (2010): 650–678 ; R. O. Work and S. Brimley, ‘20YY: Preparing for war in the robotic age’ , Center for a New American Security , 2014, www.cnas.org/publications/reports/20yy-preparing-for-war-in-the-robotic-age (accessed 28 December, 2019); P. Scharre, ‘Robotics
, ‘Ecologies of war: Dispatch from the aerial empire’, in Tom Cohen (ed.), Telemorphosis: Theory in the Era of Climate Change , Vol. 1 (Ann Arbor, MI: Open Humanities Press, 2012) , https://quod.lib.umich.edu/o/ohp/10539563.0001.001/1:13/-telemorphosis-theory-in-the-era-of-climate-change-vol-1?rgn=div1;view=fulltext (accessed 16 February, 2021).
23 M. Delmont, ‘Drone encounters: Noor Behram, Omer Fast, and visual critiques of drone warfare’, American Quarterly , 65:1 (March 2013): 193–202 .
24 G. Chamayou, Theory of the Drone (New York: The New Press, 2015
Baudrillard and Paul Virilio have written extensively about these paradoxical logics of modern media ecologies, visual artists have been no less eager to explore these same tensions. The uncertain place of aerial images in the tradition of photographic abstraction was definitely at the forefront of the French photographer Sophie Ristelhueber’s concerns when she travelled to the Kuwaiti desert in 1992 to witness the aftermath of the First Gulf War, the conflict that Baudrillard famously said ‘did not take place’. 5 Ristelhueber named her resulting series of pictures ‘Fait
pollution could have been more effective. Val Stevens, an activist in the British Ecology Party that was formed in 1975, recalled that environmentalism had grown just as ‘the massive early support for CND had dwindled’ in the early 1970s and that nuclear war was only ‘ one of the routes to destruction of the planet – but by no means the overriding one – more a nagging anxiety to the back of one's mind’.
As the 1970s went on, the dilemma of CND's ‘single
V. Shiva, Women, Ecology and Economic
Globalisation: Searching for an Alternative Vision (New
Delhi, Indian Association of Women’s Studies, 1995) at
E.g. R. Krut, Globalization and Civil
Society: NGO Influence in International Decision-Making (New
How do secular Jewish-Israeli millennials feel about the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, having come of age in the shadow of the failed Oslo peace process, when political leaders have used ethno-religious rhetoric as a dividing force? This is the first book to analyse blowback to Palestinian and Jewish-Israeli religious nationalism among this group in their own words. It is based on fieldwork, interviews and surveys conducted after the 2014 Gaza War. Offering a close reading of the lived experience and generational memory of participants, it offers a new explanation for why attitudes to Occupation have grown increasingly conservative over the past two decades. It examines the intimate emotional ecology of Occupation, offering a new argument about neo-Romantic conceptions of citizenship among this group. Beyond the case study, it also offers a new theoretical framework and research methods for researchers and students studying emotion, religion, nationalism, secularism and political violence around the world.
Identity is often regarded as something that is possessed by individuals, states, and other agents. In this edited collection, identity is explored across a range of approaches and under-explored case studies with a view to making visible its fractured, contingent, and dynamic features. The book brings together themes of belonging and exclusion, identity formation and fragmentation. It also examines how identity functions in discourse, and the effects it produces, both materially and in ideational terms. Taking in case studies from Asia-Pacific, Europe, the Middle East and Latin America, the various chapters interrogate identity through formal governing mechanisms, popular culture and place. These studies demonstrate the complex and fluid nature of identity and identity practices, as well as implications for theorising identity.
technology and new
types of community. Bookchin refers to this Second Nature as the ‘new
animism’. As we evolve, we see ourselves as ‘nature rendered
self-conscious and intelligent’. In social ecology we co-operate with
the implicit teleology of nature. 35
A more restrained and less teleological argument can be found
in other thinkers. Barry, for example, articulates the point that we are
biological as well as