male as made in the image of God.6 In the original version of this new
order in Beyond God the Father, Daly conceived of the process entailed as ‘a
Homo- and heterogeneous zones
qualitative leap toward psychic androgyny’ (97).This image was, however, soon
repudiated. In her next work, Gyn/Ecology (1978: xi), Daly abandoned androgyny
In Pure Lust she acknowledges that this concept is completely inadequate,
‘conveying something like the images of Ronald and Nancy Reagan scotch-taped
together’ (1984: 341). Although men are not totally banished,7 Daly reiterates
Contemporary witchcraft and the Lancashire witches
repeated by various German historians. The feminist writer Matilda Jocelyn Gage then made use of the number in Women, Church and State in 1893 in order to emphasise the crimes of the Church against women. It is from Gage that the number entered Wiccan mythology: the Museum of Witchcraft and Magic on the Isle of Man, owned by Cecil Williamson with Gerald Gardner as ‘resident Witch’, sported a plaque commemorating the nine million witches who died in the Great Witch Hunt, and Mary Daly’s use of the figure in Gyn-Ecology (1978) introduced the myth to feminist Witches
9 T. F. X. Noble, The Republic of Saint Peter. The Birth of the Papal State, 680–825 (Philadelphia, 1984).
10 Nelson, King and Emperor , ch. 5.
11 See Chapter 2 above.
12 P. Fouracre, ‘Eternal light and earthly needs: practical aspects of the development of Frankish immunities’, in W. Davies and P. Fouracre (eds), Property and Power in the Early Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1995), p. 73.
13 R. Balzaretti, Dark Age Liguria. Regional Identity and Local Power c. 400–1020 (London, 2013) , pp. 13–34, for the ecology of the region.
Conditions in the slave-owning societies of Athens and Rome are too well
known to rehearse here; for a striking account of golden-age Spain’s ruthless exploitation of the New World, its vile maltreatment of its indigenes,
and its enslavement of Africans in the Americas, see C. C. Mann, 1493:
How Europe’s Discovery of the Americas Revolutionized Trade, Ecology
and Life on Earth (London: Granta, 2011).
Celts, Catholicism and the middle ages
22 See L. Bieler (ed. and trans.), The Patrician Texts in the Book of Armagh
(Dublin: Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies
introduction of a third term is not enough to destabilize the binary.
Something more radical is needed.
Problems of rigidity
Irigaray is not the only feminist to look for ways to destablize the
hegemony of binary logic. Anglo–American feminists also have been
searching for alternatives. Val Plumwood (1993) addresses the dualisms
male–female and culture–nature specifically, though not exclusively, in
her construction of a feminist ecology. Margrit Shildrick (1997) works
towards a feminist ethics of difference which questions and disrupts
binary oppositions. Janice
environment came to the fore as a ‘Green nun’ involved in the Renewing the Earth Campaign, Christian Ecology Link and Operation Noah. 11
Sister M. Philip Rendall’s experience is perhaps not typical, but it is one of many that demonstrate a personal shift in religious ministries, where the local and global were integrated as sisters and nuns began to identify themselves as ‘citizens of the world’. This process, of course, was not without personal and community tensions. Rendall’s story began with the personal. First, her ministry came from an individual desire of ‘being
-based feminist thinking is in fact grounded in spiritualist
and religious piety. Her specific examples include writers on African-American
issues like Audre Lourde and Adrienne Rich; theorists like Luce Irigaray and
bell hooks; and postcolonial writers like Paul Gilroy and the ecology warrior,
Vandana Shiva. This is the postsecular turn in feminist theory, which she thinks
will open a pathway for a dialogue between feminism and activists in favour of
religious identities. The postsecular approach allows feminists to find common
ground with other movements that draw political
Although it is Francia that supplies the bulk of the evidence for these relatively well-off types whose obligations to those above them were easy, similarities of social structure, ecologies and agricultural practices would suggest that they were to be found across Western Europe. It may well be that it is often people of this sort (the ‘middling sort’?) who are the named parties in many Spanish documents of the tenth century, or who appear as witnesses in manumission documents from later Anglo-Saxon England, or, maybe, as holders of fractions of a ‘hide’ in
Eve and her unsuspecting garden in seventeenth-century literature
and Renaissance Studies , 9 : 231–53 .
Edwards , K.L. ( 1999 ) Milton and the Natural World: Science and Poetry in Paradise
Lost . Cambridge : Cambridge University Press .
Edwards , K.L. ( 2008 ) ‘ Eden Raised: Waste in Milton’s
Garden .’ Renaissance Ecology: Imagining Eden in
Milton’s England . Ed. K
Cambers’ assertion that there existed a significant paradigm within religious manuscript writing which consisted of ‘sociability and the self’.
William Sherman's research on the ‘dynamic ecology of use and reuse’ of printed books equally applies to manuscript life-writing, a major theme in this volume, whereby the use of devotional texts leads to their frequent ‘transformation’ and ‘preservation’.
A wealth of recent research, outlined by Zeynep Tenger and Paul