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Historiographical and research political reflections
Lene Koch

Being a historian of eugenics in Denmark, I have never been in want of an audience. 1 Writing in the 1990s, it seemed that the mere mention of the concept of eugenics was enough to create a strong interest in what I had to say about this – at the time – forgotten chapter of Danish history. German Rassenhygiene and its relationship to the Holocaust were well known, but it was a

in Communicating the history of medicine
Chloe Campbell

The cultural pervasiveness of eugenics, described in the previous chapter, does not always make its influences easy to define: the eugenic programme was largely theoretical, and the intellectual project was always work-in-progress. As a set of ideas, eugenics was profoundly malleable, marked by a deep ambivalence towards concepts of progress and modernity and consequently

in Race and empire
Chloe Campbell

In January 1931, Dr H. L. Gordon, President of the Kenya branch of the British Medical Association, made a speech at the organisation’s Annual Dinner which was a powerful plea for the use of eugenics in colonial development policy. He argued that the promotion of education and physical health in Africa were potentially irresponsible objectives if undertaken without due regard

in Race and empire
Chloe Campbell

The eugenics movement that emerged in Kenya in the early to mid-1930s both chimed and at times subtly clashed with settler prejudices and preoccupations. The movement was born out of British eugenics – a eugenic hybrid was created, which used the same intellectual framework and attracted a similar audience to that of British eugenics, but which was also distinctively motivated by

in Race and empire
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Eugenics in colonial Kenya
Author: Chloe Campbell

This book tells the story of a short-lived but vehement eugenics movement that emerged among a group of Europeans in Kenya in the 1930s, unleashing a set of writings on racial differences in intelligence more extreme than that emanating from any other British colony in the twentieth century. By tracing the history of eugenic thought in Kenya, it shows how the movement took on a distinctive colonial character, driven by settler political preoccupations and reacting to increasingly outspoken African demands for better, and more independent, education. Eugenic theories on race and intelligence were widely supported by the medical profession in Kenya, as well as powerful members of the official and non-official European settler population. However, the long-term failures of the eugenics movement should not blind us to its influence among the social and administrative elite of colonial Kenya. Through a close examination of attitudes towards race and intelligence in a British colony, the book reveals how eugenics was central to colonial racial theories before World War II.

Genetics, pathology, and diversity in twentieth-century America

Is deafness a disability to be prevented or the uniting trait of a cultural community to be preserved? Combining the history of eugenics and genetics with deaf and disability history, this book traces how American heredity researchers moved from trying to eradicate deafness to embracing it as a valuable cultural diversity. It looks at how deafness came to be seen as a hereditary phenomenon in the first place, how eugenics became part of progressive reform at schools for the deaf, and what this meant for early genetic counselling. Not least, this is a story of how deaf people’s perspectives were pushed out of science, and how they gradually reemerged from the 1950s onwards in new cooperative projects between professionals and local signing deaf communities. It thus sheds light on the early history of culturally sensitive health care services for minorities in the US, and on the role of the psycho-sciences in developing a sociocultural minority model of deafness. For scholars and students of deaf and disability studies and history, as well as health care professionals and activists, this book offers new insight to changing ideas about medical ethics, reproductive rights, and the meaning of scientific progress. Finally, it shows how genetics came to be part of recent arguments about deafness as a form of biocultural diversity.

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Nellie’s dance
Chloe Campbell

In July 1933 an aristocratic farmer-settler, the Honourable Eleanor, or ‘Nellie’, Grant, went to a ball held for the navy by Kenya’s Acting Governor, Sir Henry Moore, at Government House, Nairobi. She had a ‘lovely sit-out’ with the Reverend Wright, Dean of Nairobi, and their conversation turned to some of the big issues of the day, religion and eugenics

in Race and empire
Editor: Saul Dubow

The history and sociology of science has not been well developed in southern Africa as compared to India, Australia or Latin America. This book deals with case studies drawn from South Africa, Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), Mozambique and Mauritius, and examines the relationship between scientific claims and practices, and the exercise of colonial power. European intellectuals saw in Africa images of their own prehistory and societal development. The book reveals the work of the Swiss naturalist and anthropologist Henri Junod. The relative status of Franco-Mauritian, Creoles and Indo-Mauritian peasants was an important factor in gaining knowledge of and access to canes. After the Boer War, science was one of the regenerating forces, and the British Association found it appropriate to hold its 1905 meetings in the Southern African subcontinent. White farmers in the Cape Colony in the late nineteenth century often greeted with suspicion the enumeration of livestock and crop. The book focuses on the connections between the apartheid state's capacity to count and to control. Apartheid statecraft included aspirations of totalising modes of racialised knowledge. Included in the theme of state rationality and techniques of domination is the specialized use of dogs by police in apprehending black alleged criminals. The book discusses the Race Welfare Society, which turned to eugenics for a blueprint on how to cultivate a healthy and productive white population. However, George Gale and Sidney and Emily Kark advocated socialised medicine, and had a genuine desire to promote the broad health needs of Africans.

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The decline of the eugenics empire
Chloe Campbell

biology and partly in the nature of the colonial population, which lacked experts on heredity who could challenge Gordon and his associates’ monopoly on eugenic thought. In the case of eugenics in colonial Kenya we have a clear example of the colonial frontier’s tendency to distort. 1 The emphasis on the heredity of innate characteristics and the assumption of European superiority that underlay British

in Race and empire
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Gerald V. O’Brien

American eugenics movement have been published. These have covered virtually all aspects of the movement, including, for example, its antecedents and evolution, the major personalities involved, the relationship of American eugenics both to the Nazi race hygiene programs and contemporary genetic and bioethical developments and other aspects of the movement. This begs the relevant question: why another book on eugenics? My response to this is that this book is not ‘on eugenics’ in the sense that it is another overview of the movement and its effects. Rather, the primary

in Framing the moron