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Amy Milne-Smith

legacies of Victorian society continued into the twentieth century, though often in their darkest and most cynical forms. Theories of degeneration hardened into eugenics. Somatic theories led to horrific psychosurgeries that may never have been contemplated without late Victorian pessimism about asylum care. Alfred Fuller was placed under asylum care in October1867 by his mother. He was twenty-one and suffering his first attack of insanity. The illness came on suddenly, and the young man was apprehended by police in Bath as a wandering lunatic. He was described as always

in Out of his mind
Maria K. Bachman and Paul C. Peterson

, ‘Man’s most sacred duty, and at the same time his most glorious opportunity is to promote the maximum fulfilment of the evolutionary process on this earth; and this includes the fullest realisation of his own inherent possibilities’ ( Religion 218). The belief that humans have untapped evolutionary potential is also a key component of eugenics. Huxley, in fact, had been a supporter of eugenics throughout his career, although his views on how to improve the human species did evolve over time. 12 While various eugenics programmes and practices were accepted around

in Adapting Frankenstein
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The earliest image of an ambulatory mummy
Jasmine Day

growing interest in eugenics and racial theory throughout the remainder of the nineteenth century would come to dominate the interpretation of Egyptian mummies. Even a brief overview of the principal and lesser works preceding ‘Some Words with a Mummy’ that might have influenced it or shared some common source or ideology suggests that Poe was not merely following an established tradition of depicting revived mummies for comic effect, but specifically of using these characters to deliver social and political criticism. Allamistakeo's shaking fist

in Victorian literary culture and ancient Egypt
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Graphic children’s texts and the twenty-first-century monster
Jessica Straley

‘Geek/Goth: Remediation and Nostalgia in Tim Burton’s Edward Scissorhands ’. 5 Burton may also use this name to acknowledge Edward Gorey and his deliciously macabre cartoons. 6 Angela M. Smith complicates this reading of Whale’s final scene in Frankenstein . In Hideous Progeny: Disability, Eugenics, and Classic Horror Cinema , Smith argues that the film’s persistent reminders that Henry Frankenstein is ‘mentally defective, queer, and criminal’ make this coupling ‘a far less comforting and eugenic resolution than

in Adapting Frankenstein
Science fiction and the futures of the body
Alistair Brown

are emotionally satisfying, not according to absolute criteria about the degree of relatedness within them, since to impose such criteria may be structurally equivalent to fascist eugenics. The story is centred on two betrothed first cousins, Freda Darl and Johnny Farthing. This relationship between two similar-looking cousins provides a context for the main plot of the novel. When a series of women who

in Incest in contemporary literature
Nordic Gothic and colonialism
Johan Höglund

the Sámi themselves were increasingly racialised. In the nineteenth century, people from Scandinavia and from all over Europe began to measure and map the Sámi body. They collected Sámi crania and skeletons, and they compiled collections of Sámi artefacts and traditions, even as these artefacts and traditions were outlawed in Sápmi. During the beginning of the twentieth century, the Sámi remained second-class citizens, exposed to various forms of racism, mapped and segregated by the state-sponsored eugenics movement, and deprived of much of the land that they

in Nordic Gothic
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Madmen in the attic?
Amy Milne-Smith

J. Begiato, Manliness in Britain, 1760–1900: Bodies, Emotions, and Material Culture (Manchester, 2020), p. 5; M. Cohen and T. Hitchcock, ‘Introduction’, in M. Cohen and T. Hitchcock (eds), English Masculinities 1660–1800 (London, 1999), pp. 1–22. 9 A. Tankard, ‘Emasculation, Eugenics and the Consumptive Voyeur in The Portrait of a Lady (1881) and The Story of a Nobody (1893)’, Critical Survey 20

in Out of his mind
Inheritance, neurasthenia, criminals, and GPI
Amy Milne-Smith

. 58 A. MacDonald, ‘Moral Stigmata of Degeneration’, The Monist (1 January 1908), p. 112. 59 Weston, Life in a Lunatic Asylum , pp. 24–25. 60 C.W. Saleeby, ‘The Discussion of Alcoholism at the Eugenics Congress’, British Journal of Inebriety

in Out of his mind
The painful nearness of things
Lisa Mullen

object. Benjamin meditated on the ‘spiny forms’ of the industrial thing-world which require human agents to warm them up; mid-century writers were fearful of being ineluctably subsumed into an enveloping cold. ‘Stop worrying’: phallic weapons and comic bombs The sterilisation policy of Laski’s sinister Americans, and the prison camps set up for contaminated Europeans, of course evoke the Holocaust’s combination of eugenics and mass slaughter; for Laski, atomic weapons were allied not only with sterility and a facelessly

in Mid-century gothic
Marsh and the female offender
Johan Höglund

, Nordau influentially suggested that the increasingly urban and decadent cultures and citizens of fin-de-siècle Europe showed evidence of a counter-evolutionary process. Nordau dedicated his book to the Italian criminologist Cesare Lombroso, whose main contention was that crime was often hereditary, the irresistible impulse of an atavistic mind housed in a similarly primitive body, and that the ‘born criminal’ could be identified by physical ‘stigmata’ that indicated the person’s criminal propensities. These ideas connected with Francis Galton’s eugenics movement and

in Richard Marsh, popular fiction and literary culture, 1890–1915