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Andrew Williams

among the liberal thinkers that we have described as being appalled by the ‘irrational’ recourse to violence for political ends. Explanations for such irrationality were often sought in science, or pseudo-science. The use and abuse of socio-biology was a key element in this, continuing a long nineteenth century tradition of eugenics and other forms of Darwinian thinking. Nearly all the thinkers of the period of the First World War make repeated allusion to racial stereotypes of ‘warlike’ and ‘peace-loving’ peoples.10 The British tended to see the Germans (or ‘Teutonic

in Failed imagination?
Casper Sylvest

in the context of an increasingly racialised public and intellectual discourse receptive to the application of arguments from biology in the social sphere. The popularity of eugenics was one manifestation of this development, but more subtly the biological idiom also appeared to make some liberals more cynical in their views on international politics. 57 Even if the evolutionary theories of politics that drew explicit militaristic or imperialistic conclusions were few, there certainly was a drift away from the peaceful Spencerian idiom as concerns for national

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930
Zalfa Feghali

to render it visible. In the case of ‘white trash’, whiteness is reclassified as a trait that marks out poverty as well as, owing to the US Eugenics Records Office’s ‘Eugenic Family Studies’, ‘poor breeding’ and ‘genetic defectives’. According to Carsten Schinko, Allison ‘uses the slur not so much for its transgressive promises but in “self-​defense,” in an attempt to write off the ghosts that haunt her’,46 but in a way that allows her ‘to elude objectification … freeing her to explore the fluidity of self and memory’.47 In terms of critical engagement within

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship