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Theatre, form, meme and reciprocity
John Drakakis

as they must have done in their own period’. 48 She goes on to speculate: ‘Perhaps, then, the adaptability of Shakespeare echoes the renewability of the fairy tales he reinscribes.’ 49 The phrase ‘with a difference’ reserves for Shakespeare a residual ‘singularity’ that is important, since the thoughtless relativism that Belsey believes has infected the study of Shakespeare has been in danger of throwing the baby out with the bathwater. Indeed, to redistribute the elements of the Shakespearean text in such a way

in Shakespeare’s resources
John Drakakis

prospect of borrowing money from a usurer has been mooted, Portia’s confession that her ‘little body is aweary of this great world’ (1.2.1) highlights an anxiety that makes of Belmont something less than a fairy-tale world. Nerrisa’s response is to give Portia a mini-lecture on the virtues of the Aristotelian mean, as a response to her mistress’s frustrating dilemma: O me, the word ‘choose’! I may neither choose who I would, nor refuse who I dislike, so is the will of a living daughter curbed by the will of

in Shakespeare’s resources
Three case studies
Author: Richard Hillman

This book explores English tragedy in relation to France with a frank concentration on Shakespeare. Three manifestations of the 'Shakespearean tragic' are singled out: Hamlet, Antony and Cleopatra and All's Well That Ends Well, a comedy with melancholic overtones whose French setting is shown to be richly significant. Hamlet has occasioned many books on its own, including a recent study by Margreta De Grazia, Hamlet without Hamlet, whose objective is to free the text from the 'Modern Hamlet'. The influence of Michel de Montaigne on Hamlet is usually assumed to have left its traces in more or less precise verbal or intellectual correspondences. The book proposes two further sources of French resonance accessible to auditors of the ultimate early modern English tragedy. It talks about two French Antonies. One is the steadfast friend of Caesar and avenging Triumvir, as heralded in Jacques Grévin's César and vividly evoked in Robert Garnier's Porcie. The other is the hedonist who ruins himself for Cleopatra, as first brought on stage in France by Étienne Jodelle in Cléopâtre captive, then substantially fleshed out in Garnier's own Marc Antoine. The distance between the tragedies and All's Well comes down to the difference between horizontal and vertical lifeless bodies. When he grafted the true-to-life histoire tragique of Hélène of Tournon onto the fairy-tale of Giletta of Narbonne, Shakespeare retained the latter's basic family situation. Shakespeare's Helena succeeds where the King has failed by exploiting her position as an outsider.

Five minutes to midnight and All’s Well
Richard Hillman

not to impede the French in Italy, and Count of Roussillon became one of the titles claimed by the Emperor Charles V (Rodriguez-Salgado, 1988 , p. 33). On the one hand, the Catalan Roussillon made as fitting a setting for fairy-tale romance as, say, Illyria. On the other hand, in terms of French nationhood, the new-found Roussillon in Dauphiné takes the place of the lost one. By manipulating this

in French reflections in the Shakespearean tragic
King Lear and the King’s Men
Richard Wilson

‘distressed’ faux-naif beauty of the Contes de ma mère l’Oye. But though she ‘walks off with the fairy-tale prince’, when Cordelia tries the same trick, her prima donna offer of ‘love like salt’ is itself what critics now take ‘with a pinch of salt’. 75 And the reason for our scepticism is that Shakespeare shows how in the personalist politics of the

in Free Will
The afterlives of Ophelia in Japanese pop culture
Yukari Yoshihara

, who is partially modelled on the little mermaid in Andersen's fairy tale and who, being a mermaid, reminds us of the original Ophelia who floated on water ‘mermaid-like’ (4.7.202). Yana Toboso's Black Butler (2007–), a manga/animation set in Victorian England, parodies Ophelia's fetishised image as a dedicated lover and beautiful corpse, by presenting its Ophelia as a grim reaper who looks like a drag queen. The series is about a boy (Ciel) who has a contract with a devil (Sebastian), who agrees to serve Ciel as a butler dressed in black. Ciel

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
Love’s Labour’s Lost and As You Like It
Richard Hillman

where I previously included discussion of All’s Well That Ends Well (1602–3) in a study of Shakespearean tragedy. 1 The development of the problematic there is extensive, and I will not retrace it here, but it boils down to a notion that seems useful as well in exploring the earlier plays – that of a doubleness built into (or drawn out of) the French setting itself. In All’s Well That Ends Well , that setting virtually divides into two ‘Roussillons’, which remain in mutual suspension: one derived from Boccaccio’s medieval source story and in line with its fairy-tale

in The Shakespearean comic and tragicomic
Abstract only
Shakespeare’s voyage to Greece
Richard Wilson

king’s fairy tale was undercut by a nightmare vision of his daughter hauled across the killing field, while he raved about their happy-ever-after, in obedience to the Captain’s quiet order for ‘some retention and appointed guard’ [ 48 ] to ‘hang Cordelia in prison’ [ 252 ]. In the grip of such sovereign violence, the bare life of the extermination camp did come to seem what Agamben calls it, after

in Free Will
Mythographic complexities in 1 Iron Age
Charlotte Coffin

, finishing Le Recueil des histoires de Troyes in 1464, which William Caxton translated into the English Recuyell published in 1473/74. 16 The word ‘translation’ does not convey the alterations along the way: this is a story of metamorphoses across genres and styles, through expansion or reduction. Benoît much developed the story he found in Dares and Dictys, adding lavish descriptions and fabulous details. He was ‘weaving in elements not only from classical sources like the Metamorphoses but also from all the romances and fairy tales he had ever read or heard

in Thomas Heywood and the classical tradition
A challenge to the Festival
Florence March

shades, sonorities and colours of his composition. 18 He used an ondes Martenot , the eerie wavering notes of which reverberated in the court and enhanced the mysterious, poignant atmosphere of Shakespeare's tragedy. Jarre also composed the ‘dramatic music’  19 of A Midsummer Night’s Dream directed by Vilar, who claimed that the comedy could not be reduced to a mere fairy-tale, nor treated in a playful manner: 20 ‘we

in Shakespeare and the supernatural