to hijack support from PRRs. The best example of successful co-optation is found in The Netherlands, where incumbent prime minister Mark Rutte tried to limit the advance of Geert Wilders by adopting his own populist rhetoric. Co-optation possesses significant risk, however. There are more examples of countries where the mainstream willingly adopted far-rightpolitics– Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Switzerland – than there are start-up success stories.
The United States can also be understood as a failed co-optation attempt. The Republican Party granted a