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Peter Barry

of écriture féminine is found in the writing of Julia Kristeva. Kristeva uses the terms the symbolic and the semiotic to designate two different aspects of language. In her essay ‘The System and the Speaking Subject’ the symbolic aspect is associated with authority, order, fathers, repression, and control (‘the family, normalcy, normative classico-psychological-tending discourse, all of which are just so many characteristics of fascist ideology’). This symbolic facet of language maintains the fiction that the self is fixed and unified (what she describes as

in Beginning theory (fourth edition)
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Leonora Carrington’s The House of Fear and The Oval Lady
Anna Watz

cruelly quelled, while the father, as an embodiment of bourgeois-patriarchal law, triumphs at the story's close. Meanwhile, the narrator – and by extension the reader – is forced to witness the agony of the burning horse in a completely powerless state, as if petrified. Jonathan P. Eburne convincingly reads the story's abrupt ending and the narrator's passivity as an expression of Carrington's fear of complicity with patriarchal or proto-fascist ideologies. 59 In ‘The Oval Lady’, Eburne notes

in Surrealist women’s writing
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A black rebel with a cause
Azzedine Haddour

tradition: ‘Famille, Travail, Patrie’ – the catchphrase of his National Revolution – came to replace ‘Liberté, Egalité, Fraternité’. Pétain put in place a fascistic ideology that opened a wedge between the republican constitution he abolished and a conception of society which looked backward to the ancien régime – the regime of aristocracy and privileges which was historically represented by the white békés in the Antilles. Martinique was abandoned to fend for itself against the excesses of the Robert administration. Vichy France underscored the importance of the French

in Frantz Fanon, postcolonialism and the ethics of difference
Ted Hughes and Kay Syrad
William Welstead

disparate group, they were ‘predominantly upper and middle class and included members of the British social and political elite, academics, retired scientists whose careers had been spent within the Colonial Service, medical practitioners, and writers focused on rural and agricultural themes’ (22–3), and they were united in their ‘concern about soil fertility, health, the state of agriculture and rural decline’ (23). Some of these thinkers were drawn to the arguments of the far right and this created a link, as in Nazi Germany, between fascist ideology and organic

in Writing on sheep
Virtuous discipline in the mutable world
Andrew Wadoski

University Press , 1982 ), p. 6 . 6 Certainly, Oestreich’s arguments have been challenged – most significantly by Peter Miller’s analyses of the ways Oestreich’s reliance on Nazi historiography misleadingly construes Neostoic thought, and the birth of the modern nation state itself, as a precursor to fascist

in Spenser’s ethics
The philosophic narcissism of Claude Cahun’s essay-poetry
Felicity Gee

particular free-form essay charts Cahun's increasing engagement with anti-bourgeois, anti-fascist ideologies, but it also weaves in drifting thoughts about the value of art, fame, René Crevel's tragic suicide, a friendship with Henri Michaux, among other concerns. 53 It is an entirely different kind of writing from Disavowals , less poetic although still brimming with literary references, more a dialogue between certainty and uncertainty – an essay or treatise on poetry. But despite their obvious fit with surrealism in

in Surrealist women’s writing