strategies. In developing appeals to gendered identities they
always had to compete with alternative Labour and Liberal appeals.
Annie Chamberlain did more than anyone to develop a culture of femaleConservatism, which adapted to working women’s social cultures and
responded to the appeal of non-party movements. Yet the Conservatives
still struggled to overcome the onslaught of Labour in parts of urban Britain
during the early 1920s. Ladywood nearly fell from the Conservative grasp
in 1924 despite the missionary zeal of Annie Chamberlain.
All the same, there is much to