the local, represented by the substandard lifestyles of the cité (housing project) and the culturally impoverished banlieue,
to embrace richly diverse spaces, stories and cultures that pertain to the
national and transnational.
Cinematic production nowadays is tightly linked in different ways to the
television industry. As television channels regularly contribute to the funding
of full-length feature films and therefore facilitate the shooting of works by
relatively unknown or inexperienced filmdirectors, post-beur authors seek
broader audiences for their ideas by
Franco-Maghrebi identity in Hassan Legzouli’s film Ten’ja
choose to keep
the expression “Franco-Maghrebi’ in order to distinguish Legzouli from a
2 Born in 1963 in Aderj, Morocco, Legzouli has lived in Lille since the 1980s,
when he came to study mathematics but went for cinema instead. He continued his film studies in Brussels, where he received his filmdirector’s degree
from INSAS (Institut National Supérieur des Arts du Spectacle) in 1994. He
returned to France to pursue a career as a filmdirector.
3 Ailleurs et ici (1990), Coup de gigot (1991), Le Marchand de souvenirs (1992),
Là-bas si j
Shérazade and other women in the work of Leïla Sebbar
Margaret A. Majumdar
-making process itself.15 In the end,
Shérazade does achieve a measure of success. The ﬁlmdirector is forced
to concede that she is not merely a stereotypical ﬁgure: no replacement can
be found for her when she goes missing – only she will do (Le Fou, p. ).
Her young neighbours from the housing estate share in this subversive
process, transforming her portrait into a fully-ﬂedged icon over which they
mount guard, while the other pictures of naked odalisques are attacked (Le
Fou, pp. –). It is now the ﬁlmmaker’s turn to see this as sacrilegious by
claiming that the
produce meanings. A selection of filmdirectors whose work was identifiable as the creation of a distinct author’s vision became established, including John Ford, Howard Hawks and Alfred Hitchcock. The director’s work on the script and the assemblage of the meaning creating procedures of film making, such as the arrangement of setting, movement of the camera, performance style and editing system, were studied in detail to establish the distinctive vision of the director as author. The journal’s valuation of directors as auteurs adopted the ideology of expressive
along with its translation into more articulated destinies. The French writer and filmdirector portrays young female characters, their struggle with their parents and siblings, and their own quest for
a harmonious dual identity in the Parisian housing projects or cités. The
author depicts the tortuous, but impressive, tension between valiant female
50 Reimagining North African immigration
protagonists’ journeys of rejection and integration with sarcasm and humor,
in a touching and hopeful tone. Highly entertaining and authentic, the characters’ street language, a
’s play ends with master and servant couples falling in love within
their respective social class: the masters with the masters and the servants
with the servants, despite their confusing disguises.
9 Malik Chibane, the filmdirector of Hexagone and Douce France, resorts to
humor to diffuse the drama of his narratives.
10 La faute à Voltaire (2001), L’esquive (2004), La graine et le mulet (2007),
Vénus noire (2010), La Vie d’Adèle chapitres 1&2 (2013).
11 L’Esquive and La Graine et le mulet were awarded four Césars respectively,
and his latest film, La Vie d
’s novel, ‘The dream’, which explores a consumerist heaven in which everything the individual desires can be chosen. Earlier chapters have shown the competition between outside forces (God, the Church, doctors, oppressive political regimes, filmdirectors, terrorists) to influence both individual behaviour and the course of history alongside counterforces born of subjective preference and happenstance. Subversion at the margins of history is arguably much closer to a description of Barnes’s text, which has choice, chance, chaos, and catastrophe undermining the best laid
film poignantly visualises this pain of passing time,
life-chances lost and the nostalgia induced by emigration – for those who remain
as well as those who depart – that is such a pervasive feature of Irish culture.
The Jacob Award citation for Pat O’Connor’s direction of The Ballroom of
Romance sums up the cumulative achievement of Trevor’s skills as a writer for
the screen; it also indicates the power of collaborative work with an accomplished
filmdirector and creative technicians, which is at the heart of a co-production.
Trevor also received a Jacob Award for
’s works substantially in The Moor’s Last Sigh , in which ‘The great Bengali filmdirector’ is transmuted into ‘Sukumar Sen’ who makes a ‘series of haunting, humane films’ that bring to Indian cinema ‘a fusion of heart and mind’ (MLS, 173). Here too, the films that receive most attention are the ‘films for children in which Sen let his fantasy rip, in which fish talked, carpets flew and young boys dreamed of previous incarnations in fortresses of gold’ (MLS, 173).
Film is not the only visual medium to have influenced Rushdie’s style. The Moor
wings’) to describe the bodily flight of birds, just as a filmdirector like Hitchcock might invoke their instinctual life to hint at atavistic human desires or fears, but neither of these representations tells us much about the perceptual world of the creatures themselves. By holding us at an ironic distance from what a ‘poet might say’, the poem cheerfully accepts the inevitably anthropomorphic and subjective character of poetic designations. At the same time, the ambivalence of Ondaatje’s diction (‘but all it is’) suggests that the reality of inhuman experience is