• 3 • Film form and aesthetics This chapter offers an introduction to film analysis. Although this work emphasises the importance of film as a cultural and historical object, it is crucial to recognise the textual specificity of film. As the work is partly aimed at those who may not have studied film before, this chapter will outline how to explore visual style and will draw attention to how this is constructed through lighting, staging, performance, camerawork, costumes and music. The focus here is film and, while the examples are predominantly drawn from
v 2 v ‘A mass which you could form into whatever you wanted’: refugees and state building in Lithuania and Courland, 1914–21 Klaus Richter Introduction When refugees made their way from Russia back to their homes in Lithuania and Latvia at the end of the First World War, they returned to entirely different countries. Ravaged by destruction and the deportation of one-third of the population, the region was barely recognisable. Moreover, what were once provinces on the periphery of the Russian Empire had now been transformed into independent states, striving for
8 ‘Some kindred form of medical social work’: Defining the boundaries of social work, health visiting and public health nursing in Europe, 1918–25 Jaime Lapeyre Introduction With the devastating losses throughout Europe during World War I, including millions killed and wounded and millions more who contracted tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, the post-war period marked a time of unprecedented public interest in the physical health and well-being of citizens. In response, several national governments enlisted hundreds of nurses and volunteer ‘visitors
The first part of this article focuses on previously unstudied materials relating to the critical recuperation of William Blake in the period between c.1910 and 1930. It notes how commentators utilised ideas of citizenship and hospitality when they attempted to modernise Blake’s interests and concerns. It explains how these distinctive critical idioms were constructed, what they had in common and how they situated Blake in larger public arguments about the social significance of cultural creativity. The second part of the article traces the ramifications of this new way of thinking about Blake by noting his appearance in modernist and neo-romantic art criticism in the 1930s and 1940s.
priscilla peckover 5 Priscilla Peckover and the ‘truest form of patriotism’ 1 A s an organisation with a stated commitment to absolute pacifism, the Peace Society experienced considerable difficulties in working with non-absolutists. The problems were caused by divisions over the role of Christianity in peace principles, and the question of whether some wars could be justified. Indeed, a study of the Peace Society in this period suggests that it was simply impractical to expect pacifists divided by this principle to work together. Yet the work of one of the
‘ the truest form of patriotism ’ 2 ‘The women of the whole world form . . . a unity’: feminist journals and peace questions1 T hrough the debates on physical force, many women active in the feminist movement were drawn to consider wider issues of military conflict and war. Such well-known feminists as Josephine Butler, Millicent Garrett Fawcett, Lydia Becker, Caroline Ashurst Biggs (editor of the Englishwoman’s Review from 1871 to 1889) and Henrietta Müller (editor of the Women’s Penny Paper from 1888 to 1892) intervened in debates about the role of the armed
1 New byt, new woman, new forms of housing B efore we start exploring the Soviet approach to housing, we need to understand the state housing was in when the Bolsheviks came to power, and hence what they had to deal with before they could start putting their own ideas into practice. Accordingly, we will start this chapter with an outline of the housing situation in Russian cities before the Revolution. We will then look at the revolutionary government’s attempts to develop a distinctly socialist housing policy in the chaotic conditions of the Civil War and War