Lewis, 2003). Three main types of qualitative research methods
were used within the EQUIP programme of work and these will form the focus
of the current chapter: in-depth interviews, focus groups and observations.
Throughout the chapter, the authors will refer to allied publications resulting
from EQUIP as a way of providing examples of real life research to support the
description of the methodological approaches provided.
By the end of this chapter you should be able to:
1. Understand different types of qualitative research methods
A systematic review is a vital part of the research process. It forms a clear
and rigorous summary of existing evidence relating to a treatment, presented
in a useful and comprehensible way to inform other healthcare professionals’
decision-making. This chapter breaks down each stage of the systematic
review process, inviting the reader to critically consider a range of
methods and techniques for the inclusion and analysis of studies and their
We have been a little mischievous in the title of this chapter, for its second part is itself a rhetorical question. A rhetorical question is a sentence in the form of a question, but, whether spoken or written, no answer is expected from the audience. Instead, the reply is either regarded as self-evident or posing the question is a preliminary to the author’s providing the answer. It is used for effect of one sort or another, ranging from persuasion, getting the reader to pay attention, pointing out irony, or perhaps just to be amusing. It might also be
how black feminists have drawn attention to the ways in which being a woman might be experienced differently when race and ethnicity are taken into account.
It is the third paragraph in the essay, the first of the middle section. The first two paragraphs set out the context and provide a guide to the argument. This third paragraph begins the actual task of making the essay’s argument. The paragraph is clear, well argued and well evidenced. Below we show the paragraph in its original form and then go on to outline some of the writing and argument techniques
method (Goodwin, 1996) is the most widely used method
in determining cut-off scores and involves asking experts to rate
the probability that the item will be an accurate measure of the
concept. If the wrong cut-off score is used, a person’s
outcome status may not be correctly recorded.
3. Ensuring reliability
Reliability is the degree of stability with which a scale measures what it is
designed to measure. There are several different types of reliability that you
might come across:
• internal consistency
• parallel form
There are various forms of sentence: they are divided first into simple and multiple, which in turn is further divided into compound and complex. This section discusses all four forms, and in the process introduces clauses, which are components of sentences, and conjunctions, which are joining words.
The sentence below can be analysed grammatically (i.e. parsed) to illustrate typical components. Working through this example should reintroduce you to features you may not have thought about for several years
from some contextualisation in the broader body of academic scholarship on postmodernism and post-structuralism. This would help you show how a critical engagement with Baudrillard’s theory of consumerism could be informed by an understanding of the wider critical and cultural project of which he formed a part. It is important, however, when providing such context that you do not distract readers with too much information. When you locate theorists within broader bodies of work keep uppermost in your mind that your purpose is to highlight their particular approach
write essays, critical reviews, term papers, annotated bibliographies, essay plans, reports, blog posts and so on. Each of these forms of writing has its own specific, sometimes subtly different, qualities, some of which are shared and some of which are not. A blog post is not much like a report, for example, since the former adopts an informal style and generally aims to entertain, whereas the latter adopts a formal style and generally aims to summarise concisely the most important findings of an enquiry. We have focused this book on writing essays, for this is the
have not been considered, which risks leaving you simply feeling swamped with no idea where to start.
Once you have done this initial reading you will probably have a good sense of the central concepts and themes about the topic you are studying. These should then form the search criteria you use in internet and library search engines. Starting from course materials and working outwards towards online searches is a good way of going about things because it helps you to shape your searches in a constructive and focused way. It gives you clear lines of enquiry
and exploiting technological developments, as well as drawing inspiration from cutting-edge research, the personalities of researchers or the ethical issues they face. Consider, for example, the development of photography, made possible by advances in chemistry in the nineteenth century and now evolving to incorporate many different physical phenomena, from infra-red through to the artistry involved in hand-colouring electron micrographs. At the same time, photography has become an established art form.
These impacts are not uni-directional from research to