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Defining the boundaries of social work, health visiting and public health nursing in Europe, 1918–25
Jaime Lapeyre

8 ‘Some kindred form of medical social work’: Defining the boundaries of social work, health ­visiting and public health nursing in Europe, 1918–25 Jaime Lapeyre Introduction With the devastating losses throughout Europe during World War I, including millions killed and wounded and millions more who contracted tuberculosis and other infectious diseases, the post-war period marked a time of unprecedented public interest in the physical health and well-being of citizens. In response, several national governments enlisted hundreds of nurses and volunteer ‘visitors

in Histories of nursing practice
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Dolto in the twenty-first century
Richard Bates

published the first of two sharply critical books, castigating Dolto’s theories as ‘outdated and very often inappropriate, even toxic’. 9 Pleux’s attacks formed part of a broader cultural battle in the 2000s over the scientific validity, and political implications, of psychoanalysis in France. This anti-Freudian wave notably produced the 2005 Livre noir de la psychanalyse ( Black Book of Psychoanalysis ), a collection of texts mainly by cognitive-behavioural therapists, taking aim at the epistemological foundations of

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Popularising psychoanalysis, 1945–68
Richard Bates

and other aspects of popular culture regularly foregrounded psychological thinking, helping to create a form of ‘psychologised society’ in which, as Sarah Fishman writes, ‘the habit of seeing others, children, spouses, and the self, in psychological terms spread’. 3 As the last chapter showed, this tendency reached institutions such as the Catholic Church that had previously been relatively resistant to the new psychological disciplines. Another institution being won over was academia. The Sorbonne created an undergraduate

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Doltomania
Richard Bates

journalist Guy Baret could write a successful book, Allô maman Dolto , 9 mocking what he termed ‘ doltomaniaques ’ – defined as mothers who dogmatically attempted to apply Dolto’s ideas in all situations, even if it resulted in absurd outcomes. 10 Baret argued that Dolto had become so fashionable that bourgeois mothers were engaging in a form of one-upmanship, seeking to outdo each other in their ostentatiously thorough application of her ideas. A 1994 theatrical adaptation of Allô maman Dolto by Sophie Duprès was a

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in interwar France
Richard Bates

-right monarchist group Action Française. Several of them were interested in esoteric or mystical forms of knowledge – homeopathy, theosophy, paracelsianism, even alchemy. Along with Laforgue, these doctors set up a journal, L’Évolution psychiatrique ( EP ), in 1925. Aware of the scepticism towards psychoanalysis in orthodox French medical circles, the EP group adopted a defensive posture, admitting that doubts persisted about the empirical validity of Freud’s work but hoping that submitting psychoanalysis to ‘our French spirit of

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in the public sphere, 1968–88
Richard Bates

they were called, went further than any other institution in France – and arguably anywhere – to insert psychoanalysis into the everyday lives of thousands of families, and to convert it into a form of common sense. S.O.S. Psychanalyste! The growing psychologisation of western society in the twentieth century occurred in tandem with the development of the broadcast media. Cultural historian Maggie Andrews has described how the emergence of radio in the interwar period ‘dramatically changed men and women’s experience

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto and the psychoanalytic approach to autism in France
Richard Bates

autistic people themselves, has moved towards conceiving of autists as a ‘neurotribe’ who experience the world in a distinct way that is no less valid than ‘neurotypical’ experience. 6 In 2019, the Swedish climate campaigner Greta Thunberg’s reference to her Asperger’s syndrome as a ‘superpower’ was widely reported. 7 For most of the twentieth century, however, the condition was considered a severe form of mental illness. The term was coined in 1911 by a Swiss psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler, who also created the diagnosis of

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

War. 79 In the 1920s he worked as a mechanic for Peugeot and Renault, before obtaining his medical degree in 1934. He was mobilised to the French army as a doctor in 1939, and survived a serious road accident during his service. As a doctor, physiotherapist and Orthodox Christian, Boris shared Françoise’s holistic approach to medicine, and had come across Psychanalyse et pédiatrie while seeking out innovative works in this vein. Their common openness to esoteric forms of holistic therapy facilitated their first

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Françoise breaks free?
Richard Bates

how in this period tennis had turned into a ‘leisure sport as a form of etiquette, or a kind of communication practised in high society’. 67 It was playing tennis in Morocco in 1929 that Pierre Marette met his future fiancée Yvonne, the colonel’s daughter, which can only have underlined its importance to Françoise. Zaza, too, excelled at tennis, and wrote similar letters to her parents charting her progress; Madame Lacoin likewise saw it as a source of potential suitors, but could not tolerate Zaza playing ‘with young

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.