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The ICRC hack revisited
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

amount and type of data available in such databases make humanitarian operations infinitely vulnerable. 1 From the beginning, looking for missing people has been a core activity for the ICRC and the Red Cross movement (national societies (NS) and the International Federation of the Red Cross (IFRC)). The Central Tracing Agency (CTA), founded in 1870 and enshrined in the

in Humanitarian extractivism
An introduction
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

around the collection, analysis and use of humanitarian data results in new forms of risk and harm for communities in crisis – as well as risk to humanitarian operations and humanitarian workers. The digital transformation brings about new partnerships and partnership logics – and co-constitutes new forms of humanitarian space and new sites of humanitarian intervention. These themes will be explored

in Humanitarian extractivism
The Smith College Relief Unit, Near East Relief and visions of Armenian reconstruction, 1919–21
Rebecca Jinks

, Florence Snow, Helen Thayer and Helen Whitman. 5 See A. D. Krikorian and E. L. Taylor’s data compilation and analysis, ‘Ninety-six Years Ago Today’, Armenian News Network , 16 February 2015, www.groong.org/orig/ak-20150216.html (accessed 20 March 2020). 6 B. Little, ‘An Explosion of New Endeavours: Global Humanitarian Responses to Industrialized Warfare in the First World War Era’, First World War Studies 5:1 (2014), 1–16. 7 For example, special issue of First World War Studies 5:1 (2014); D. Rodogno, ‘Non-state Actors’ Humanitarian Operations in the

in Aid to Armenia
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

humanitarian operations, while basic IT skills and digital literacy become a requirement for almost all humanitarian jobs. As noted in the introduction to the book, these developments involve the humanitarian worker in the everyday practices of data extractivism. To better understand the constitution of digital expertise – and of experts – I look at three types of socio-technical practice involving

in Humanitarian extractivism
Modern mobilities and ancient thalassocracies in the Mediterranean Sea
Andonea Jon Dickson

of the Mediterranean. There is also a significant number of humanitarian operations that have, over recent years, contributed to the complexity of connectivity at sea. While not all are still presently active, these humanitarian operations have included: Migrant Offshore Aid Station (MOAS), Sea-Watch, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), as well as Jugend Rettet, Proactiva Open Arms, Sea-Eye, Save the Children, and

in The Sea and International Relations
Flying high and failing fast
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

use humanitarian emergencies to build moral economies and trial products – drones have lost most (if not all) of their previous sensationalism and fascination and become a mainstream technology. 1 While much remains to be done to effectively operationalize drones and integrate them into humanitarian operations, potential uses for them include assessing damage to critical infrastructure, mapping roads and damaged areas

in Humanitarian extractivism
Kelly-Kate Pease

Human Rights Litigation in U.S. Courts , 2nd edition (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), 434. 15 “Office of Global Justice,” accessed October 1, 2014. www.state.gov/j/gcj/index.htm . 16 See “Humanitarian Operations,” accessed April 25, 2014. www.state.gov/t/pm/iso/c21542.htm . 17 See The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federation of Russia, “The Report on the Human Rights Situation in the European Union,” December 6, 2012, accessed August 1, 2014. www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/F6501F42C40A25EE44257ACC004971FC . For analysis of the report see

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Kathryn Nash

manage a conflict that had the potential to de-stabilize the region. 29 The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) authorized by Resolution 794 was comprised predominantly of US troops with approximately 20 other states contributing smaller contingents. It began arriving in December 1992, and at its height was made up of about 37,000 troops under US command, authorized to use all necessary means to secure areas for humanitarian operations. The success of UNITAF is debatable. While it was able to ensure the delivery of some humanitarian aid, it was not able to operate in all

in African peace
Kelly-Kate Pease

, and medical services to millions of starving people. Eventually, a UN peacekeeping force took over stability operations in 1993; however, the partnership between the United States and UN would be tested as a UN operation under independent US military command (to capture a warlord) led to the deaths of eighteen US servicemen. As dramatized in the US film Black Hawk Down , the bodies of these servicemen were mutilated and dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. These events were broadcast around the world on CNN and would color future humanitarian operations in

in Human rights and humanitarian diplomacy
Vicki Squire
,
Nina Perkowski
,
Dallal Stevens
, and
Nick Vaughan-Williams

very different experiences according to the routes taken by people on the move. Many of those travelling on the central Mediterranean route were unaware of the military-humanitarian operations referred to by Garelli and Tazzioli ( 2018a, 2018b ). For this reason, none of the people we spoke with discussed being deterred from leaving the shores of Libya in fear of encountering and being contained by military-led operations at sea. Their testimonies cast doubt on the veracity of claims that widespread awareness of search and

in Reclaiming migration