The Smith College Relief Unit, Near East Relief and visions of Armenian reconstruction, 1919–21
, Florence Snow, Helen Thayer and Helen Whitman.
5 See A. D. Krikorian and E. L. Taylor’s data compilation and analysis, ‘Ninety-six Years Ago Today’, Armenian News Network , 16 February 2015, www.groong.org/orig/ak-20150216.html (accessed 20 March 2020).
6 B. Little, ‘An Explosion of New Endeavours: Global Humanitarian Responses to Industrialized Warfare in the First World War Era’, First World War Studies 5:1 (2014), 1–16.
7 For example, special issue of First World War Studies 5:1 (2014); D. Rodogno, ‘Non-state Actors’ HumanitarianOperations in the
manage a conflict that had the potential to de-stabilize the region. 29
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) authorized by Resolution 794 was comprised predominantly of US troops with approximately 20 other states contributing smaller contingents. It began arriving in December 1992, and at its height was made up of about 37,000 troops under US command, authorized to use all necessary means to secure areas for humanitarianoperations. The success of UNITAF is debatable. While it was able to ensure the delivery of some humanitarian aid, it was not able to operate in all
Vicki Squire, Nina Perkowski, Dallal Stevens, and Nick Vaughan-Williams
very different experiences according to the routes taken by people on the move.
Many of those travelling on the central Mediterranean route were unaware of the military-humanitarianoperations referred to by Garelli and Tazzioli ( 2018a, 2018b
). For this reason, none of the people we spoke with discussed being deterred from leaving the shores of Libya in fear of encountering and being contained by military-led operations at sea. Their testimonies cast doubt on the veracity of claims that widespread awareness of search and
The management of migration between care and control
The Italian navy and the compassionate repression
A similar integration of
humanitarian and security responses within a common ‘emergency frame’
can be explored through the representation strategies and discursive
practices enacted by the Italian navy since the launch of the operation
Mare Nostrum. 34 The
military-humanitarianoperation – targeted at both rescuing
Human Rights Litigation in U.S. Courts , 2nd edition (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2008), 434.
15 “Office of Global Justice,” accessed October 1, 2014. www.state.gov/j/gcj/index.htm .
16 See “HumanitarianOperations,” accessed April 25, 2014. www.state.gov/t/pm/iso/c21542.htm .
17 See The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federation of Russia, “The Report on the Human Rights Situation in the European Union,” December 6, 2012, accessed August 1, 2014. www.mid.ru/brp_4.nsf/0/F6501F42C40A25EE44257ACC004971FC . For analysis of the report see
to defend the sovereignty and territory of the country, to contribute to
collective defense within the NATO-framework and to UN, NATO, EU or OSCE-led
international peacekeeping, stabilization or humanitarianoperations.” The 2012 National Security Strategy goes on to emphasize
civil-military cooperation in multilateral deployment missions such as
disaster relief. Sound familiar? The 2012 National Security Strategy pushes
opposing political stances on the crucial issue of what Germany’s new security role should and could be. The
legalistic debate centred around articles 24 (entry to a system of collective security) and 87a (defensive purposes or for any other explicitly
outlined role only) of the Basic Law, which in the existing interpretation, as discussed in chapter 2, had codiﬁed the Bundeswehr’s role as
limited to one of defence within NATO area only or for overtly humanitarianoperations.13 The rupture of 1989–90 gave renewed political topicality to the issue of the spatial remit of
, and medical services to millions of starving people. Eventually, a UN peacekeeping force took over stability operations in 1993; however, the partnership between the United States and UN would be tested as a UN operation under independent US military command (to capture a warlord) led to the deaths of eighteen US servicemen. As dramatized in the US film Black Hawk Down , the bodies of these servicemen were mutilated and dragged through the streets of Mogadishu. These events were broadcast around the world on CNN and would color future humanitarianoperations in
Juvenile actors and humanitarian sentiment in the 1940s
Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), established in 1946, represent
the organisation’s global humanitarianoperations during and
immediately following the war. Maurice Pate, UNICEF’s first
Executive Director, made his candidacy conditional on the
organisation’s committing to proide relief to children from the
former Axis countries (see M. Black, The Children and the
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis
. Defence against invasion – defence
of our vital interests: these are NATO’s essential tasks. But Europeans can and
must respond to other demands in Europe and beyond: peace keeping, crisis
management, humanitarianoperations, sanctions enforcement.’65
The foregoing discussion shows that European national responses to the
end of the Cold War were conditioned by the highly institutionalised European
environment. Not only that, but European governments promoted ‘institutionalisation’, albeit in different forms (adaptation, reform, consolidation, etc.).
This, however, does