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A reply
Ayelet Shachar

essays. I will try to do so wherever possible in the discussion that follows. However, the bulk of my response will be devoted to three core issues that I believe are important to address. For the sake of analytical clarity and succinctness, I will label these as: 1) shapeshifting migration control and illiberal leeway; 2) legal institutions, social change, and constraints on governmental power; and 3) the emancipatory power of ideas and political agency. Shapeshifting migration control and illiberal leeway The essays by Steffen Mau and Noora Lori bring to the fore

in The shifting border
Noora Lori

provides us with the conceptual language to identify and critique the contemporary migration-enforcement practices of liberal states, while developing a framework for practicably countering the illiberal effects of these policies. She pushes the contemporary scholarship on migration by proposing a shift in the dominant perspective, “from the more familiar locus of studying the movement of people across borders to critically investigating the movement of borders to regulate the mobility of people ” ( p. 7 ). Others have pointed out that states deploy de

in The shifting border
State, market, and the Party in China’s financial reform

Over more than thirty years of reform and opening, the Chinese Communist Party has pursued the gradual marketization of China’s economy alongside the preservation of a resiliently authoritarian political system, defying long-standing predictions that ‘transition’ to a market economy would catalyse deeper political transformation. In an era of deepening synergy between authoritarian politics and finance capitalism, Communists constructing capitalism offers a novel and important perspective on this central dilemma of contemporary Chinese development. This book challenges existing state–market paradigms of political economy and reveals the Eurocentric assumptions of liberal scepticism towards Chinese authoritarian resilience. It works with an alternative conceptual vocabulary for analysing the political economy of financial development as both the management and exploitation of socio-economic uncertainty. Drawing upon extensive fieldwork and over sixty interviews with policymakers, bankers, and former party and state officials, the book delves into the role of China’s state-owned banking system since 1989. It shows how political control over capital has been central to China’s experience of capitalist development, enabling both rapid economic growth whilst preserving macroeconomic and political stability. Communists constructing capitalism will be of academic interest to scholars and graduate students in the fields of Chinese studies, social studies of finance, and international and comparative political economy. Beyond academia, it will be essential reading for anyone interested in the evolution of Chinese capitalism and its implications for an increasingly central issue in contemporary global politics: the financial foundations of illiberal capitalism.

Race and nation in twenty-first-century Britain

Nationalism has reasserted itself today as the political force of our times, remaking European politics wherever one looks. Britain is no exception, and in the midst of Brexit, it has even become a vanguard of nationalism's confident return to the mainstream. Brexit, in the course of generating a historically unique standard of sociopolitical uncertainty and constitutional intrigue, tore apart the two-party compact that had defined the parameters of political contestation for much of twentieth-century Britain. This book offers a wide-ranging picture of the different theoretical accounts relevant to addressing nationalism. It briefly repudiates the increasingly common attempts to read contemporary politics through the lens of populism. The book explores the assertion of 'muscular liberalism' and civic nationalism. It examines more traditional, conservative appeals to racialised notions of blood, territory, purity and tradition as a means of reclaiming the nation. The book also examines how neoliberalism, through its recourse to discourses of meritocracy, entrepreneurial self and individual will, alongside its exaltation of a 'points-system' approach to the ills of immigration, engineers its own unique rendition of the nationalist crisis. There are a number of important themes through which the process of liberal nationalism can be documented - what Arun Kundnani captured, simply and concisely, as the entrenchment of 'values racism'. These include the 'faux-feminist' demonisation of Muslims.

Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.

Open Access (free)
Postcolonial governance and the policing of family

Bordering intimacy is a study of how borders and dominant forms of intimacy, such as family, are central to the governance of postcolonial states such as Britain. The book explores the connected history between contemporary border regimes and the policing of family with the role of borders under European and British empires. Building upon postcolonial, decolonial and black feminist theory, the investigation centres on how colonial bordering is remade in contemporary Britain through appeals to protect, sustain and make family life. Not only was family central to the making of colonial racism but claims to family continue to remake, shore up but also hide the organisation of racialised violence in liberal states. Drawing on historical investigations, the book investigates the continuity of colonial rule in numerous areas of contemporary government – family visa regimes, the policing of sham marriages, counterterror strategies, deprivation of citizenship, policing tactics, integration policy. In doing this, the book re-theorises how we think of the connection between liberal government, race, family, borders and empire. In using Britain as a case, this opens up further insights into the international/global circulations of liberal empire and its relationship to violence.

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Liberalism, Muslims and nation-state values
Sivamohan Valluvan

to them in order to confront the commentary and platforms that they believe to be demeaning. Equally, a reflection on liberal nationalism would also take note of how a strong defensive assertion of liberalism precipitates a raft of ostensibly illiberal programmes; the extreme version of this being a suite of coerced integration injunctions alongside draconian counter-security programmes whose entire remit rests on Muslims, once rendered a ‘suspect community’, being stripped of certain liberal protections, not least the right to citizenship.54 Much of this will

in The clamour of nationalism
The Manchester School, colonial and postcolonial transformations

Anthropology after Gluckman places the intimate circle around Max Gluckman, his Manchester School, in the vanguard of modern social anthropology. The book discloses the School’s intense, argument-rich collaborations, developing beyond an original focus in south and central Africa. Where outsiders have seen dominating leadership by Gluckman, a common stock of problems, and much about conflict, Richard Werbner highlights how insiders were drawn to explore many new frontiers in fieldwork and in-depth, reflexive ethnography, because they themselves, in class and gender, ethnicity and national origins, were remarkably inclusive. Characteristically different anthropologists, their careers met the challenges of being a public intellectual, an international celebrity, an institutional good citizen, a social and political activist, an advocate of legal justice. Their living legacies are shown, for the first time, through interlinked social biography and intellectual history to reach broadly across politics, law, ritual, semiotics, development studies, comparative urbanism, social network analysis and mathematical sociology. Innovation – in research methods and techniques, in documenting people’s changing praxis and social relations, in comparative analysis and a destabilizing strategy of re-analysis within ethnography – became the School’s hallmark. Much of this exploration confronted troubling times in Africa, colonial and postcolonial, which put the anthropologists and their anthropological knowledge at risk. The resurgence of debate about decolonization makes the accounts of fierce, End of Empire argument and recent postcolonial anthropology all the more topical. The lessons, even in activism, for social scientists, teachers as well as graduate and undergraduate students are compelling for our own troubled times.

Steffen Mau

welcome will be a key goal. It goes without saying that this will also rely on the assistance of private actors as well as transit countries and countries of origin. A state’s sovereign control, which up to now was located at its own borders, is thereby not given up but instead combined with other actors and subject to changing framework conditions. Governmental forms of control are arising that encompass many different actors, including private actors—from the airlines to the data-brokerage companies. Liberal states and their interest in illiberal borders In the

in The shifting border
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Democratic conflict and the public university
Ruth Sheldon

’, and specifically Islam, as a key source of conflict is a more recent development (Dinham and Jones 2012; O’Toole and Gale 2013). Following the violent events of 9/​11 and 7/​7 and the emergent Contested framings 19 discourse of a ‘War on Terror’, Muslims’ political claim-​making has been constructed as uniquely illiberal, in violation of Western communicative norms, and has therefore become a focus of government action. As Pnina Werbner (2012) describes, this forms part of an evolving discourse positing a civilisational clash between ‘the West’ and Islam. From

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics