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Francis N. Botchway and Mohamed Salem Abou El Farag

-reliance, equality and inter-dependence of Member States, accountability, economic and social justice and popular participation in development, as well as equitable and just distribution of the costs and benefits of economic cooperation and integration. 35 In practical terms, the revised Treaty creates eight Commissions primarily in economic sectors. 36 Of course, there is a Commission

in African perspectives in international investment law
Richard Parrish

preferences and power of the member states. Moravcsik refined his earlier work on intergovernmental institutionalism by adding to his theory of interstate bargaining an explicit theory of national preference formation grounded in liberal theories of international interdependence (Moravcsik 1991, 1993). Moravcsik employs these two theoretical approaches to test his claim that European integration depends on macro-level interstate bargains negotiated by member states with the aim of managing economic interdependence. Moravcsik treats the key intergovernmental players as

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Vincent Chapaux

Grace Augustine (Sigourney Weaver) is a scientist. She is in charge of the botanical mission and does not share the vision of the previous character. According to her, each species has a right to live and grow in its own way. She develops a systemic and interdependent vision of interspecies relations. In the movie, this interdependence is quite literal. The roots of the trees are actually an information network at the scale of the moon itself: Alright, look – I don’t have the answers yet, I’m just now starting to even frame the questions. What we think we know

in Cinematic perspectives on international law
Richard Parrish

many sports, qualification for European competitions is achieved through championship or cup performance. In essence therefore, the pyramid structure implies considerable interdependence between the levels. This ‘open’ model contrasts with the ‘closed’ procedures in the USA where championships are closed and sport is governed by many federations. The European ‘model’ has emerged out of the traditional culture of amateurism in European sport whilst the US ‘model’ represents professionalism. In this respect, European sport has traditionally not been practised as an

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

their territorial sovereignty is sublimated. 44 Such rhetoric has undermined, for example, attempts in the UN to accommodate the claims to self-determination of indigenous peoples, 45 or to resolve territorial disputes. It is the basis of the nostalgia about an era of strong, impermeable boundaries (now seen to be undermined by increasing global interdependence) found in the modern literature of

in The boundaries of international law
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

, diminishing resources, shared access to resources, the interdependence of trade and economic interests, trans-boundary health risks and the potential consequences of conflict all indicate the need for a problem-solving approach to international disputes. Arbitration and adjudication are distinguished from the negotiatory processes by their adversarial nature and legally binding outcomes. Although settlement of

in The boundaries of international law
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

recent academic revival of interest in the potential of article 38(l)(c) which had largely become a ‘historical remnant’. 101 For example, M. Cherif Bassiouni has argued that increasing global interdependence has exposed the inadequacies of customary international law and treaties in responding to major issues such as human rights, the environment, economic development and international criminality. 102 He has contended that

in The boundaries of international law

equality – so differently? Studies like this one have only started to unpack the meanings behind the principles driving international . In one study, the authors conclude the following: [E]conomic interdependence and the passage of time are important explanatory variables for predicting independence, implying that institutions are both functional and evolving. By contrast, the concentration of power within a region and the number and heterogeneity of member states do not provide

in The values of international organizations
Richard Parrish

implications can still be caught within the scope of competition law. Third, do sports rules have the potential to prevent, restrict or distort competition in the EU? Rules which have a minor impact on competition are not subject to EU competition law. Nevertheless, as in any other sector, horizontal and vertical sporting agreements do have the potential to be caught within the scope of competition law. Of course competition in the sports sector is not necessarily the same as in other sectors due to the unique interdependence within the sector. This leads to a supplementary

in Sports law and policy in the European Union
Abstract only
Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin

are not simply economic growth but are primarily social and human, and it emphasises the interdependence of social justice at the national and international levels. The right to development is defined as an individual right ‘by virtue of which every human person and all peoples are entitled to participate in, contribute to, and enjoy economic, social and cultural and political development, in which

in The boundaries of international law