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David Doyle

Catholics. Their very increase in the US lent gradual force to their outlook. In 1900, certainly half of America’s twelve million Catholics were of Irish birth or descent. In 1995, around fifteen million held they were so, among sixty-five million US Catholics, if by then, only one-third of all Irish-descended Americans reported themselves as Catholic.9 If the Irish Catholic self-image in North America thus took only partial account of transatlantic realities, their strong sense of the interdependence of faith and ethnicity was well warranted before 1940. II The year 2008

in Irish Catholic identities
Jonathan Smyth

paramount, practical politics, even when based on such lofty ideals, were likely to be more opportunistic than moral. There is also no firm evidence that he really believed it would be possible to impose on society what Furet called ‘Robespierre’s absurd principle’,26 an idealised system where there would be transparency and interdependence between history, political action and public morality. The open question remains whether Robespierre consciously believed that the imposition of some recognisably ‘religious’ system would counteract what he saw as the potentially

in Robespierre and the Festival of the Supreme Being
Family dynamics in the Pendle witch trials
Jonathan Lumby

This chapter analyzes the network of relationships and motivations among the accusers and accused in the Pendle area, shedding light on the related trial of Jennet Preston of Gisburn. The chapter explores the question of what disposed gentry and magistrates in the Lancashire and Yorkshire borderland to promote the destruction of the Pendle witches in 1612. Two men of considerable standing in the society of those parts instigated the persecution: Roger Nowell and Thomas Lister. Close investigation reveals the interdependence of the two trials. The gentry accusers and magistrates in both cases were part of the same Protestant social network, and both had family experience of suffering at the alleged hands of witches. The families from the hill-country were crushed between the millstones of two different perceptions of the nature of witchcraft, millstones set on their dire motion by traumas in the families of the instigators. A whole web of connections, with many suggestions of family intrigue and manipulation is uncovered, bringing out an individual perspective on family breakdown, persecution and victimization.

in The Lancashire witches
Robert Poole

important: the related trial of Jennet Preston of Gisburn. Historians have been at a loss to explain why Thomas Potts added an account of this trial in distant York to that of the Lancaster one. The simplistic assumption has been that the Pendle investigation threw up evidence relating to the Yorkshire events, which was duly forwarded and acted upon. Closer investigation reveals the interdependence of the two trials. The Yorkshire events took place only just across the county border, a few miles up the Ribble Valley from the Pendle area. The gentry accusers and

in The Lancashire witches
Kathleen G. Cushing

culture of the earlier middle ages. Rather, as Brian Stock and others have argued, a new type of interdependence arose between the two, in which oral discourses remained powerful but ever more subordinate to text. 3 This had important social and cultural implications as the literati began increasingly to define and defend the text – and its interpretation – as their privileged sphere. Although churchmen had long dominated the means of communication since the decline of the Roman Empire, monastic and clerical writers in general were now being called upon to write

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
A new church for the unhoused
Michael Cronin

what it is to be someone not like oneself and to be aware of the impact of choices that one makes on the lives of others. This can involve everything from the way we design entrances to our public buildings to the way we strive to avoid racial profiling in the policing of our streets. In a world of global interdependence, where our needs are catered for by people we will most probably never meet (the cotton shirt from India or the iPhone from China), forms of empathy need to be global as well as local. The capacity to imagine and understand the lives, feelings and

in Tracing the cultural legacy of Irish Catholicism
Kathleen G. Cushing

‘evil customs’. 12 Such a view is clearly false. In fact, as Nelson and others have shown, all the political abuses condemned in peace councils around the year 1000 had been denounced two centuries earlier, although not eradicated. To assume otherwise is both to overestimate the machinery of Carolingian administration and to underestimate the uneasy, but necessary interdependence that existed between the Carolingian state and seigniorial power. 13 That levels of violence increased – or at least perceptions thereof – in the wake of, and long after, the Norse, Saracen

in Reform and papacy in the eleventh century
Samuel Willes and the 7th Earl of Huntingdon
William Gibson

early modern England East Midlands, far beyond the metropolitan core of patronage for politicians, writers and artists in London, there was a smaller, local network of clients and patron. The relationship of the 7th Earl of Huntingdon and Samuel Willes, his chaplain between 1660 and 1684, was a building block and foundation on which other patronage networks rested. To take another metaphor, Willes’ career, is an example of a patronage node from which radiated a small provincial network of clients and interdependence, linked through the expression of friendship and

in Chaplains in early modern England
Abstract only
Global kosher and halal markets
John Lever and Johan Fischer

, homogenising and driven by objectifying scientific modes of governance’ (Hansen 2000: 255). Unpacking secularism involves a focus on how Jews and Muslims live ‘the secular’ as well as divergent modes of secular government in everyday life. Einstein’s (2008) work on the ‘supply-​side theory of religion’ is useful in this context in that it stresses the increasing interdependence between religious and commercial culture. Einstein argues that unlike most consumer goods, where demand can be manipulated, the supply of religious goods can only be increased because a market already

in Religion, regulation, consumption
Leeds Jewish tailors and Leeds Jewish tailoring trade unions, 1876–1915
Anne J. Kershen

were to be found Eastern European male tailors, machiners and pressers together with a small number of English females – the latter carrying out unskilled tasks; 3 the factories employed both genders, though few, if any, Jewish workers. In Leeds it was a system of separation yet interdependence between English factory and Jewish workshop. This chapter will follow the progress of the Jewish section of the Leeds wholesale clothing industry from its earliest beginnings to the point at which workers in Jewish workshops and English factories

in Leeds and its Jewish Community