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The media and international intervention
Author: Philip Hammond

The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.

International peacebuilding consortiums in Nagorny Karabakh, 2003–16
Laurence Broers

In the early 1990s the appearance of a small, war-ravaged and unrecognised Armenian republic in the South Caucasus created a new context in the history of international interventions in Armenian crises. 1 The Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (NKR), proclaimed on 2 September 1991, was one of several cases of unilateral secession challenging Soviet successor states, in this case Azerbaijan. 2 These secessions were contested in small but often vicious wars, characterised on all sides by violations of the human rights of civilian populations on a massive scale. Their

in Aid to Armenia
Author: Mary Venner

The reconstruction of Kosovo after 1999 was one of the largest and most ambitious international interventions in a post conflict country. Kosovo was seen by many international actors as a ‘green fields’ site on which to construct the government institutions and practices they considered necessary for future peace and prosperity. For a while Kosovo was close to being a laboratory for the practice of institution building and capacity development. This book looks beyond the apparently united and generally self congratulatory statements of international organisations and donors to examine what actually happened when they tried to work together in Kosovo to construct a new public administration. It considers the interests and motivations and the strengths and weaknesses of each of the major players and how these affected what they did, how they did it, and how successful they were in achieving their goals. Although in general the international exercise in Kosovo can be seen as a success, the results have been uneven. Some public administration institutions perform well while others face ongoing challenges. The book argues that to a significant extent the current day performance of the Kosovo government can be traced to the steps taken, or sometimes not taken, by various international actors in the early years of the international intervention.

Abstract only
Philip Hammond

. A third, again closely related, criticism is that the negative impact of international intervention prior to 1994 tends to be underestimated or ignored by most analysts. The RPF’s 1990 invasion was repulsed with French help, but although France had been a staunch supporter of Habyarimana’s one-party state during the Cold War, Western priorities in Africa had already begun to change. The watchword

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
Abstract only
Philip Hammond

definition, possess full sovereignty, international intervention is both necessary and legitimate. As we saw in Chapter 2, this was precisely the argument made about intervention in Somalia in the early 1990s. In the present context, emphasising that ‘For the last five years [Afghanistan] has not even existed as a functioning state’ and that ‘there are no state institutions worth speaking of in Kabul, Straw

in Framing post-Cold War conflicts
Abstract only
Mary Venner

illustrates several common potential problems in international intervention including failure to appreciate the political implications of an apparently technical reform, and the need for effective coordination between international actors that may have avoided this problem. The DFID project was also one of the many examples of the use of divergent and incompatible legal drafting conventions and terminologies

in Donors, technical assistance and public administration in Kosovo
Abstract only
Mary Venner

by most major powers. On this basis it would appear that the post-conflict exercise in Kosovo has been a success. This is not the impression given, however, in much of the academic literature on UNMIK and evaluations of governance and public administration in present-day Kosovo. Many accounts of the results of the international intervention create a general impression of failure and disappointment

in Donors, technical assistance and public administration in Kosovo
Abstract only
Mary Venner

all parties much harder. Ongoing inter-ethnic hostility and the flight of most of the Serb population, a complex political situation with competing groups claiming to be the legitimate government, and a desire by many in the local population to return to the certainties of the past rather than to embrace rapid transformation presented significant challenges to the international intervention

in Donors, technical assistance and public administration in Kosovo
Managing the great power relations trilemma
Graeme P. Herd

–823. 39 N. Gegelashvili, ‘Effects of Ukrainian crisis: Georgian dimension’, Politkom.ru (11 April 2014). 40 Y. Nikitina, ‘Russia’s Policy on International Interventions: Principle or Realpolitik?’, Policy Memo 312, 2014, available at: www.ponarseurasia.org/memo/russia%E2%80%99s-policy-international-interventions

in Violence and the state
The ICTY, ICTR and ICC
Matt Killingsworth

in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), p. 10. 14 M. Humphrey, ‘International intervention, justice and national reconciliation: The role of the ICTR and ICTY in Rwanda and Bosnia’, Journal of Human

in Violence and the state