strongly influenced the discussions creating the AU were Thabo Mbeki and Olusegun Obasanjo. Mbeki was concerned that the international perception of the OAU protecting African dictators hurt its goal of achieving economic development, and he was most interested in transforming the international image of Africa in order to enhance investmentanddevelopment. To do this Mbeki drew on the long history of pan-Africanism, calling on African states to conclude the work of earlier pan-Africanist movements and re-invent the African state to take its rightful place in
lack a concrete agenda and a regular monitoring system. An extraordinary dense network of multilevel dialogue forums between the two parties contrasts with decreasing interdependences in terms of trade and other interdependences (migration flows, investmentanddevelopment co-operation).
Today the EU remains top trading partner for only Cuba and Brazil – all other countries have either China or the US as their top trade partner. In an inter-regional context characterised by declining trade relations and a closer partnership between Latin America
merits of free-market economic policy in the manner of European Conservative and Reformist MEPs. In its policy literature, ALDE states that ‘social justice is a precondition for a stable climate for investmentanddevelopment’ (Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe 2019 ). This undoubtedly gives the ECR group a recognisable political ‘USP’ to be the main voice of capitalism in the European Parliament.
A Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) – the idea of establishing a formal trade agreement between the European Union and
The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
, investmentanddevelopment links between origin and destination
countries. Indeed, involving the diaspora in development processes is
yet another item of high importance on the African migration agenda.
Thirdly, African countries have also demanded more assistance in tackling ‘root causes’ which act as the main ‘push factors’ for migration,
Policies and partnerships
such as poverty, unemployment, political and economic instabilities,
overpopulation and environmental degradation. To this extent, assistance in the creation of increased employment opportunities and
-term investmentanddevelopment programme for Europe. (DGB, 2012)
Voluntaristic nonsense. (IG Metall leader Bertold Huber on the 14 November 2012 European Day of Action and Solidarity)
Germany is the archetypal core Eurozone country. After the launch of the euro, wage moderation helped guarantee competitive advantage for the country within EMU. A number of authorities have associated this outcome with the efficacy of German sectoral bargaining (Hancké, 2013 ; Hassel, 2014 ; Johnston
, undesirable (from Japan's perspective) multipolarity. Indeed, China's promotion of the Belt and Road Initiative from 2013 was viewed by Japan as a challenge to the established trade, investment, anddevelopment order. Its refusal to acknowledge the 2016 ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration against its territorial claims in the South China Sea was seen in Japan as a threat to international law.
To address what it saw as the emergence of a coercive
was ‘expediated development’, especially in the Uyghur-majority south of the region (Wei and Cuifen 2010 ). As part of this increased development, the CCP implemented a novel public–private partnership model for this area that matched municipalities outside the region in China proper with specific parts of the XUAR for investmentanddevelopment projects (Jia 2010 ). This programme raised the settler colonization of the region to a new level as it also brought an influx of Han-led companies with their capital and their Han workers. As Cliff suggests, the goals of