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Martin Thomas

of between four per cent (French Guiana) and nine per cent (Martinique). 16 At the end of the inter-war period, as at the beginning, recourse to increased taxation flowed naturally from the overriding need to balance budgets. Labour supply Colonial governments generally regulated workers’ employment terms and labour conditions

in The French empire between the wars
Frances Steel

employment of indigenous sailors on USSCo. steamers equally objectionable. Although trading from Australia or New Zealand into the Pacific could not be classed as coasting, in these trades it became the norm to maintain coasting labour conditions and, hence, white labour. In 1884 the USSCo. removed all Islander labour from ships trading between Auckland and islands in the Pacific. The

in Oceania under steam
Eric Richards

rates and mobility moved in tandem. It is well known that young people often emigrated in order to marry and vice-versa. The contracting of so many marriages just before emigration fits well into this pattern. The exit of labour Conditions in the eighteenth century are made cloudy by the lack of precise data relating to the key variables: this was a pre-census world in which even Malthus had little conception of the actual size of the British population or its rate of growth. These facts suddenly became alarmingly visible as soon as the results of the first three

in The genesis of international mass migration
Conservative responses to nationalisation and Poplarism, 1900–40
Liam Ryan

’ on its programme ‘for three decades’, with the most ‘incessant demands’ for public ownership coming from the Labour Party and trade unions in recent years. Nationalisation, he suggested, would increase the scope for ‘political corruption’ as socialists and organised labour sought ‘more pay and less work’. In a nationalised railway industry, wages and labour conditions

in The many lives of corruption
Gordon T. Stewart

compare conditions of life and labour in this country with those obtaining in Dundee’. They reminded their Dundee audience that the Royal Commission on Labour of 1890 set up by the Government of India had found nothing wrong with labour conditions in the Calcutta mills. The IJMA presented the Calcutta mills as a great boon to the poorer classes of Bengal. ‘The Jute Mills in Bengal’, they admonished the

in Jute and empire
The African tour of the Portuguese crown prince in 1907
Filipa Lowndes Vicente
Inês Vieira Gomes

colonization’. 37 In stark contrast to international accusations of slavery-like recruitment and labour conditions, the official narrative was thus one about the civilising nature of work and the exemplary conditions in which it took place among an estimated 66,000 people transferred from Angola to São Tomé between 1876 and 1904. 38 Work, like religion – which was invoked in other contexts – embodied the transforming nature of the

in Royals on tour
Abstract only
Wharf labourers and the colonial port
Frances Steel

blunders year after year as we do’. 56 Indigenous workers also influenced the course of this developing industry through demands for improved labour conditions. From the early 1900s, the USSCo., rather than the colonial state, met increasing demands for travel and food allowances to and from Suva and provided housing for men during their employment in town. In 1911 translated

in Oceania under steam
Abstract only
Cultures of maritime technology
Frances Steel

, reciprocating engines and other mechanisms were often described for their technical wonder, it was unusual to read of the living and working conditions of the men who built and operated these vessels, or to see crew members in the photographs and posters of ships which instead emphasised mechanical size and scale. 37 This deflected attention from less than salutary labour conditions on board, particularly in

in Oceania under steam
The discourse of unbridled capitalism in post-war Hong Kong
Mark Hampton

Kong’s labour conditions attracted the periodic attention of social reformers and manufacturing interests in Britain. In the mid-1960s, Elsie Elliott’s campaigns included visits to London to encourage parliamentary intervention. 57 David Clayton has shown that British governmental pressure was crucial in pushing the adoption of the eight-hour day for female workers in the late 1960s, and London

in The cultural construction of the British world
Dancers, musicians, and the transformation of social dancing into mass culture in the USA, c. 1900–41
Klaus Nathaus
James Nott

-class dances did not hire AFM members but sought to find able players among non-union musicians. This meant that they had to select performers on a labour market that was open to virtually all comers and thus highly competitive. Black players were overrepresented on this market. Not only were they excluded from the unions, but they were also more inclined to work in music and put up with adverse labour conditions. A badly paid gig in show business was still more attractive than most other jobs available to African Americans

in Worlds of social dancing