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Martin Thomas

of between four per cent (French Guiana) and nine per cent (Martinique). 16 At the end of the inter-war period, as at the beginning, recourse to increased taxation flowed naturally from the overriding need to balance budgets. Labour supply Colonial governments generally regulated workers’ employment terms and labour conditions

in The French empire between the wars
Frances Steel

employment of indigenous sailors on USSCo. steamers equally objectionable. Although trading from Australia or New Zealand into the Pacific could not be classed as coasting, in these trades it became the norm to maintain coasting labour conditions and, hence, white labour. In 1884 the USSCo. removed all Islander labour from ships trading between Auckland and islands in the Pacific. The

in Oceania under steam
Eric Richards

rates and mobility moved in tandem. It is well known that young people often emigrated in order to marry and vice-versa. The contracting of so many marriages just before emigration fits well into this pattern. The exit of labour Conditions in the eighteenth century are made cloudy by the lack of precise data relating to the key variables: this was a pre-census world in which even Malthus had little conception of the actual size of the British population or its rate of growth. These facts suddenly became alarmingly visible as soon as the results of the first three

in The genesis of international mass migration
Conservative responses to nationalisation and Poplarism, 1900–40
Liam Ryan

’ on its programme ‘for three decades’, with the most ‘incessant demands’ for public ownership coming from the Labour Party and trade unions in recent years. Nationalisation, he suggested, would increase the scope for ‘political corruption’ as socialists and organised labour sought ‘more pay and less work’. In a nationalised railway industry, wages and labour conditions

in The many lives of corruption
Gordon T. Stewart

compare conditions of life and labour in this country with those obtaining in Dundee’. They reminded their Dundee audience that the Royal Commission on Labour of 1890 set up by the Government of India had found nothing wrong with labour conditions in the Calcutta mills. The IJMA presented the Calcutta mills as a great boon to the poorer classes of Bengal. ‘The Jute Mills in Bengal’, they admonished the

in Jute and empire
Frank Uekötter

response, tappers could turn to independent suppliers or switch dealers, but the location of their trade severely limited their range of options. In fact, quite a number of tappers eventually realised that they were operating at a loss. 6 Labour conditions in the Amazon became subject to international scrutiny when the muckraking British weekly Truth began to publish a series of

in Sites of imperial memory
The African tour of the Portuguese crown prince in 1907
Filipa Lowndes Vicente and Inês Vieira Gomes

colonization’. 37 In stark contrast to international accusations of slavery-like recruitment and labour conditions, the official narrative was thus one about the civilising nature of work and the exemplary conditions in which it took place among an estimated 66,000 people transferred from Angola to São Tomé between 1876 and 1904. 38 Work, like religion – which was invoked in other contexts – embodied the transforming nature of the

in Royals on tour
Miles Taylor

dividing against East Indies MPs who sought sugar cultivation in the ‘free-labourconditions of British India. And ‘newer’ colonies, such as the Caribbean islands annexed from France in 1815 – whose interests were not the same as those of Jamaica – or Lower Canada, were less impressed with the haphazard system of representation that the old plantation colonies and India merchants. Rejecting the idea of separate colonial representation in 1831, the Quebec Gazette declared that ‘Lower Canada has never condescended to buy a seat in the House of Commons.’26 Besides the

in Parliaments, nations and identities in Britain and Ireland, 1660–1850
Central African medicines and poisons and knowledge-making in the empire, c.1859–c.1940
Markku Hokkanen

involved the Lomwe, recent migrants from Mozambique. 64 Lomwe workers were later characterised as being particularly unwilling to report sickness by colonial officials investigating labour conditions in Cholo district in 1931. 65 Despite the generalising nature of such colonial statements, there may have been pronounced suspicion towards colonial authorities and health

in Medicine, mobility and the empire
Anandi Ramamurthy

groups by 1900 about slave-labour conditions on the cocoa estates of two Portuguese controlled islands, Sao Thomé and Principe, off the coast of West Africa. Sao Thomé cocoa was known to be of good quality and although Cadbury’s and other cocoa manufacturers did not buy cocoa direct from the islands, a third of the cocoa from Sao Thomé was imported into England in the 1900s and

in Imperial persuaders