January 1948, p. 1.
190 ‘Suggestion to Improve Native LabourConditions’, Rhodesia Herald , 9 April 1948, p. 11.
191 Vambe, Rhodesia to Zimbabwe , p. 245.
192 Lessing, Going Home , p. 252.
193 Granite Review , December 1942, p. 12.
194 Minutes of the 1946 RRWU Conference , p. 149.
195 ‘African Trade Unions’, RRR , November 1946, p. 3.
196 Samkange, ‘Rhodesia Labour Party’, pp. 53–90.
197 ICOMM: pp.zw.srlp. 1, Memo Re. Split SRLP from RLP, p. 1.
198 ICOMM: pp.zw.rlp.RLP.1938, Constitution, p. 2.
200 ‘The Labour Party vs
four per cent (French Guiana) and nine per cent (Martinique). 16 At the end
of the inter-war period, as at the beginning, recourse to increased
taxation flowed naturally from the overriding need to balance
Colonial governments generally
regulated workers’ employment terms and labourconditions
employment of indigenous sailors on USSCo. steamers equally
Although trading from Australia or New Zealand into
the Pacific could not be classed as coasting, in these trades it
became the norm to maintain coasting labourconditions and, hence,
white labour. In 1884 the USSCo. removed all Islander labour from
ships trading between Auckland and islands in the Pacific. The
compare conditions of life and labour in this
country with those obtaining in Dundee’. They reminded their
Dundee audience that the Royal Commission on Labour of 1890 set up by
the Government of India had found nothing wrong with labourconditions
in the Calcutta mills. The IJMA presented the Calcutta mills as a great
boon to the poorer classes of Bengal. ‘The Jute Mills in
Bengal’, they admonished the
response, tappers could turn to independent suppliers or switch
dealers, but the location of their trade severely limited their
range of options. In fact, quite a number of tappers eventually
realised that they were operating at a loss. 6
Labourconditions in the Amazon became subject to
international scrutiny when the muckraking British weekly
Truth began to publish a series of
The African tour of the Portuguese crown prince in 1907
Filipa Lowndes Vicente and Inês Vieira Gomes
In stark contrast to international accusations of slavery-like
recruitment and labourconditions, the official narrative was thus one about
the civilising nature of work and the exemplary conditions in which it took
place among an estimated 66,000 people transferred from Angola to São Tomé
between 1876 and 1904. 38 Work, like religion – which was
invoked in other contexts – embodied the transforming nature of the
Central African medicines and poisons and knowledge-making in the empire, c.1859–c.1940
the Lomwe, recent migrants from Mozambique. 64 Lomwe workers were later
characterised as being particularly unwilling to report sickness by
colonial officials investigating labourconditions in Cholo district in
Despite the generalising nature of such colonial statements, there may
have been pronounced suspicion towards colonial authorities and health
groups by 1900 about slave-labourconditions on the cocoa
estates of two Portuguese controlled islands, Sao Thomé and
Principe, off the coast of West Africa.
Sao Thomé cocoa was known to be of good quality and
although Cadbury’s and other cocoa manufacturers did not buy cocoa
direct from the islands, a third of the cocoa from Sao Thomé was
England in the 1900s and
contexts of images, although I realise that it is not always possible to
analyse advertising images in this way.
Soap advertising enables an exploration of the soap
companies’ interests in the palm oil resources of West Africa.
Cocoa advertising reveals company interests in raw materials, as well as
specific kinds of labourconditions. Tea marketing enables company
interests in particular kinds of production
blunders year after year as we do’. 56
Indigenous workers also influenced the course of this
developing industry through demands for improved labourconditions.
From the early 1900s, the USSCo., rather than the colonial state,
met increasing demands for travel and food allowances to and from
Suva and provided housing for men during their employment in town.
In 1911 translated