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Leeds in the age of great cities
Derek Fraser

began to address the anomaly by wiping out many ‘pocket and rotten boroughs’ and giving Leeds and other new industrial cities seats their own two MPs. When the first election campaign in Leeds took place, there was an unexpected piece of evidence as to the existence of a small but identifiable Jewish community. Baines and the Mercury decreed that Leeds liberals should have one local MP and one national figure. The local was John Marshall junior, an obvious choice given the importance of the family flax-spinning business. The national figure was Thomas Babington

in Leeds and its Jewish Community
Anti-racism, equal opportunities, community cohesion and religious identity in a rural space, 1999 onwards
Sarah Hackett

local government policies and measures in Wiltshire and it focuses on the county’s local political approach to immigration, integration and diversity since the turn of the twenty-first century. It traces changes and continuities as Wiltshire’s local administration once again balanced national-level directive and mandate with local circumstances and particularism. As was the case during previous decades, local authorities were once again counted on to play an important role in delivering national-level policy. The 2001 Cantle Report requested that they ‘prepare a local

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Race relations, multiculturalism and integration, 1976 to the late 1990s
Sarah Hackett

The Race Relations Act 1976 can be seen to have been something of a turning point in the politics of migration and race in post-war Britain. Rooted in a perception that local authorities were not sufficiently active in this area, the act placed the responsibility of promoting positive race relations and tackling racial disadvantage firmly in their hands. Whilst the precise impact of the act is unclear and the notion that it yielded immediate results is disputed, with some arguing that action was also spurred on by the 1981 riots rather than by the act alone

in Britain’s rural Muslims
The early years, 1960s to 1976
Sarah Hackett

tackle discrimination and promote integration. Whether they were genuine well-meaning attempts to counter racial discrimination, or simply seen as a means to combat the social problems that black immigration was often linked to, they were central to Britain’s distinct race relations framework that prevailed well into the 1980s. 2 This chapter discusses local government policy in Wiltshire between the early 1960s and the implementation of the Race Relations Act 1976, which marked a key turning point in the county’s immigrant, integration and diversity policies and

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Donnacha Seán Lucey

4 Child welfare and local authorities By the early twentieth century it was widely recognised that workhouses were unsuitable institutions for children. However, many continued to be relieved in workhouses and by the early 1920s renewed efforts were being made to remove children from the newly named county homes. This chapter examines the relationship between local boards of health and public assistance and industrial schools. Furthermore it explores the boarding-out system and highlights that this provision was at times preferred to institutionalisation. This

in The end of the Irish Poor Law?
Governing and politicising ‘actually existing austerity’ in a post-democratic city
Joe Penny

This chapter outlines the ‘actually existing’ contours of austerity urbanism in London, as it is being assembled by local government, and draws out the depoliticising processes and practices through which local actors absorb cutbacks. Given the pace and scale of budget cuts passed down onto local government since 2010, organised institutional resistance from urban political elites has been conspicuous by its absence. During the 1980s, when Thatcher imposed a policy of rate-capping alongside fiscal retrenchment, the response across a small but

in How the other half lives
Iain Lindsey, Tess Kay, Ruth Jeanes, and Davies Banda

5 Approaches to local SfD provision This chapter provides an in-depth analysis of how SfD is delivered in Zambian communities, paying particular attention to those who are central to this provision; namely, Zambian peer leaders. In doing so, the chapter addresses a number of topics that have frequently featured elsewhere in the SfD literature, in studies that have largely focused on specific programmes. This chapter offers a contrasting and

in Localizing global sport for development
Sandra Streed

6 Sustainable local food systems and environmental sustainability Sandra Streed We begin with a simple truth. How we eat determines how the earth is used. (Wendell Berry, 1990) B erry’s statement provokes questions about the connections and relationships among food, our earth, and our environment. Where does food come from? Where and how is it grown? How is it harvested, packaged, delivered to us? What is its value and what is its cost? Is it a sustainable system? What food systems are in place? What is a sustainable food system? What is sustainability? What

in University engagement and environmental sustainability
Adam Hedgecoe

‘I remember when I went on a training course they did suggest that one of the ethical issues you were supposed to consider is the qualifications of the person doing the research. Now that’s a hell of a lot easier if you all know who this person is.’ Celia, expert member, St Swithin’s Local Research Ethics Committee (LREC) The potential links between LRECs and local research institutions come into sharp relief before a meeting of the St Swithin’s committee. Members are milling around, and the Chair tells an anecdote from the night before. While at a formal

in Trust in the system
Paul Collinson

3 Environmental attitudes, community development, and local politics in Ireland Paul Collinson Anyone who has ever visited Ireland will be immediately struck by the natural beauty of the country. From the rugged uplands of the west, the golden beaches of Cork and Kerry, the rolling drumlins of the midlands to the sea cliffs of the north, Ireland is undoubtedly blessed with one of the richest and most diverse environmental endowments in Europe. Attracted by tourist brochures and advertisements which play heavily on images of Ireland as a rural paradise, tourists

in Alternative countrysides