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Provenance and decline
Bill Jones

The importance of local government seems obvious, in that what matters most to people are the things which affect them and their families on a daily basis: their environment, street hygiene, safety and so forth. Yet in the twenty-first century, local government in Britain can sometimes seem less than relevant, with few people aware of its existence and caring even less. Given such indifference, it is hard for this lowest tier of democratic government to assert itself. However, it still disposes of billions of pounds every year, employs over 2 million people and

in British politics today
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Revival?
Bill Jones

The previous chapter examined the emergence of local government, together with its reform and workings. While the dominant theme was one of decline, this chapter considers whether more recent developments have suggested it might be possible to discern some kind of revival. Writing in the Guardian on 3 September 1997, Tony Blair declared: ‘Local government is the lifeblood of our democracy’. While more cynical observers might dismiss this as anodyne political rhetoric, there have been a number of signs, both from the earlier 1990s and since the Labour

in British politics today
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Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker, and Corinne Wales

Why institutions are critical for citizen behaviour If they are to be successful, nudge and think interventions need ways of linking citizens and political representatives in central and local government. Thinking makes more sense if the ideas that citizens come up with are reviewed, judged, and preferably acted upon by policy-makers. It is also possible to imagine situations where nudges work better with links, too. Some of the nudges described in this volume aim to get people involved in making decisions jointly with decision-makers, or to

in Nudge, nudge, think, think (second edition)
Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker, and Corinne Wales

interventions are light-touch in character. The experiments show an uplift of participation of between 1 and 9 percentage points. This falls short of the transformation of public policy outcomes that many might see as essential for dealing with current policy problems. On the other hand, the nudges are relatively cheap to implement. Our local nudges cost about £10,000 to administer, which is a small amount of money even in an age of fiscal austerity, and turns into a reasonable cost for each extra item of waste recycled, books donated, organs promised, and so on. Even the

in Nudge, nudge, think, think (second edition)
Bill Jones

% of voters join parties but the parties: select candidates; provide personnel for Parliament and local councils; provide ministers and prime ministers. Their ideologies are changeable but their aim is always to win power. The Conservative Party The Conservative Party was the party of government for two-thirds of the last century. It represents the interests of business and property and has traditionally had a flexible, pragmatic approach to ideology, although Margaret Thatcher, as will be seen, changed all that. Its membership has been declining and

in British politics today
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Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker, and Corinne Wales

Richardson 2016 ). For many policy outcomes, action by the state cannot substitute for civic acts. For example, local efforts by public sector bodies to clear up unsightly bulky refuse (like mattresses and fridges) are not a substitute for citizens choosing not to dispose of unwanted items by dumping, and preferably should involve citizens also assisting with the process through clean-up days and similar exercises. Volunteering and social action are also not easily replaced by other civic acts, such as ethical buying, which may be driven by similar sympathetic human

in Nudge, nudge, think, think (second edition)
Sheryl Conkelton

consciousness of globally scaled transactions, and the concept of a uniformly constituted public shifted. As globalism's consequences were articulated counter to the singular future that had been intuited and theorized, there arose, instead, a multiplicity of effects determined and mediated by specific, local conditions. What was understood as the public arena has been reformed and

in Perspectives on contemporary printmaking
Margaret Brazier and Emma Cave

introduced. One single complaints procedure became applicable throughout the NHS. Hospital doctors, GPs and other community-based health professionals were dealt with within a unified complaints system. A three-step process was established so that complaints were first subject to ‘local resolution’ which could be followed by an ‘independent review’ of the case, with an ultimate right to resort to the Health Service Commissioner, popularly known as the NHS ombudsman. The NHS ombudsman was finally empowered to investigate complaints about clinical judgement and his

in Medicine, patients and the law (sixth edition)
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A ‘normal’ democracy?
Geoffrey K. Roberts

’ activity increased in significance. Local and regional ‘citizen initiative groups’ ( Bürgerinitiativen ) took action to block projects likely to damage the local environment or to promote projects to provide better public amenities, such as play areas or cycle paths. In particular, the expansion of nuclear power plants and the difficulties surrounding the safe disposal of radioactive waste from those plants encouraged activists to co-ordinate regional demonstrations and protests on a nationwide basis. From such activities the Green party developed, which came to offer a

in German politics today (third edition)
From key personal stakeholder to institutional outcast
Shane Kilcommins, Susan Leahy, Kathleen Moore Walsh, and Eimear Spain

Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to explain the emergence of the modern assumptions, commitments and strategic priorities that have shaped the position of the victim in the justice system. In particular, it seeks to demonstrate how the paradigm of prosecuting and investigating crime moved from an intensely local, unstructured and victim-precipitated arrangement to a structured, adversarial, State-monopolised event where the accused was largely silenced and the victim was rendered invisible. This transformation provides an important backdrop against

in The victim in the Irish criminal process