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Reflecting a nation’s past or merely an administrative convenience?
Colin Copus

Introduction In Britain central government decides the shape, population, responsibilities, powers and functions of councils in England. It is central government which can, and does, abolish councils, or entire layers of local government which lacks even the most basic constitutional protection, including the right to continued existence. While

in These Englands
Anti-racism, equal opportunities, community cohesion and religious identity in a rural space, 1999 onwards
Sarah Hackett

local government policies and measures in Wiltshire and it focuses on the county’s local political approach to immigration, integration and diversity since the turn of the twenty-first century. It traces changes and continuities as Wiltshire’s local administration once again balanced national-level directive and mandate with local circumstances and particularism. As was the case during previous decades, local authorities were once again counted on to play an important role in delivering national-level policy. The 2001 Cantle Report requested that they ‘prepare a local

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Race relations, multiculturalism and integration, 1976 to the late 1990s
Sarah Hackett

The Race Relations Act 1976 can be seen to have been something of a turning point in the politics of migration and race in post-war Britain. Rooted in a perception that local authorities were not sufficiently active in this area, the act placed the responsibility of promoting positive race relations and tackling racial disadvantage firmly in their hands. Whilst the precise impact of the act is unclear and the notion that it yielded immediate results is disputed, with some arguing that action was also spurred on by the 1981 riots rather than by the act alone

in Britain’s rural Muslims
The early years, 1960s to 1976
Sarah Hackett

tackle discrimination and promote integration. Whether they were genuine well-meaning attempts to counter racial discrimination, or simply seen as a means to combat the social problems that black immigration was often linked to, they were central to Britain’s distinct race relations framework that prevailed well into the 1980s. 2 This chapter discusses local government policy in Wiltshire between the early 1960s and the implementation of the Race Relations Act 1976, which marked a key turning point in the county’s immigrant, integration and diversity policies and

in Britain’s rural Muslims
Christian Lo

context through an overview of the dominating narratives describing the development of local government, the municipal organization and political culture in Norway. While these narratives inform the analysis of policy processes in the later chapters, their relevance will also be critically explored as their explanatory powers are put to the test. The chapter begins with a brief historical overview of the major institutional developments that have given the Norwegian municipality its present form and function. In order to convey the wide scope of

in When politics meets bureaucracy
Derek Birrell

7 The role of local government The introduction of direct rule coincided with the reorganisation of local government. Local government reform had become one of the main priorities of the British Government during the period 1969–72, although proposals for reforming the existing structure had been put forward in the late 1960s. The old system of local government had existed since the nineteenth century and was similar to the system in Britain with two all-purpose county boroughs, Belfast and Londonderry and a two-tier system for the rest of the province with six

in Direct rule and the governance of Northern Ireland
The rise and fall of the Standards Board for England
David Hine and Gillian Peele

12 Integrity issues in local government: the rise and fall of the Standards Board for England Introduction Local government is one area of British politics where, rightly or wrongly, there has long been a suspicion that sub-standard behaviour and perhaps even outright corruption was common. Since the 1970s, often under the pressure of such scandal or crisis, central government has imposed significant new controls to improve ethics at local level. In this it has paralleled broader patterns of central control over local government in many other ways.1 The process

in The regulation of standards in British public life
Abstract only
Norway and nuclear weapons cooperation in NATO
Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

widely recognised in Norway as providing extra reassurance of the guarantee under NATO’s Article 5’. 2 The chapter shows that, despite its close institutional integration in NATO overall, Norway has generally been successful in realising its policy preferences with respect to the local particularities that Oslo sought for nuclear cooperation on Norwegian territory and its waters. Norway, the US, and NATO

in Partners in deterrence
Neil Collins and Andrew Cottey

3835 Understanding Chinese:Layout 1 12/7/12 11:05 Page 66 3 The state apparatus and centre-local relations The efficiency and legitimacy of the government of the PRC are ever more bound together as the CCP increasingly justifies its monopoly of power by the material conditions of the people. Of course, social stability remains a key goal but, like many other governments of developing states, the Chinese ruling élite has to meet rising expectation from a population increasingly attuned to economic growth. The institutions of government have, therefore, been

in Understanding Chinese politics
Lesley Pruitt and Erica Rose Jeffrey

peace[building] process. So, it really is localised to their needs. ‘Claire’, M4P founder, United States Do local actors working outside the Global North experience and perceive the M4P process as localised? And what does it mean to be localised when it comes to peacebuilding programming? In this chapter we investigate what dance and creative movement can tell us about local and/or global approaches to peacebuilding, including how the local and the global

in Dancing through the dissonance