some of the cases that reflected the limits and extent of consular power. I now turn to take a closer look at the administration of consular justice and court cases.
In this chapter, I show how the nature of the British community and how the challenges of governing subjects in a vast province shaped legal administration and the resolution of cases. The chapter first outlines the nature of consular administration in Xinjiang. Consular officials were legal mediators between the local community, the Raj and consular justice. Consular officials therefore embodied a
Nineteenth-century evangelical Protestant missionary groups commonly assumed that they were the most apt providers of education to non-Europeans in British colonies. Christian schooling was deemed imperative for modernising societies to withstand secularising forces. This significant study examines this assumption by drawing on key moments in the development of missionary education from the 1830s to the beginning of the twentieth century. The book is the first to survey the changing ideologies behind establishing mission schools across the spectrum of the British Empire. It examines the Negro Education Grant in the West Indies, the Aborigines Select Committee (British Settlements), missionary conferences in 1860 and 1910 as well as drawing on local voices and contexts from Southern Africa, British India and Sri Lanka to demonstrate the changing expectations for, engagement with and ideologies circulating around mission schools resulting from government policies and local responses. By the turn of the twentieth century, many colonial governments had encroached upon missionary schooling to such an extent that the symbiosis that had allowed missionary groups autonomy at the beginning of the century had morphed into an entanglement that secularised mission schools. The spread of ‘Western modernity’ through mission schools in British colonies affected local cultures and societies. It also threatened Christian religious moral authority, leading missionary societies by the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 to question the ambivalent legacy of missionary schooling, and to fear for the morality and religious sensibilities of their pupils, and indeed for morality within Britain and the Empire.
Most Cypriots and British today do not know that Cypriots even served in the Great War. This book contributes to the growing literature on the role of the British non-settler empire in the Great War by exploring the service of the Cypriot Mule Corps on the Salonica Front, and after the war in Constantinople. This book speaks to a number of interlocking historiographies, contributing to various debates especially around enlistment/volunteerism, imperial loyalty and veterans' issues. At the most basic level, it reconstructs the story of Cypriot Mule Corps' contribution, of transporting wounded men and supplies to the front, across steep mountains, with dangerous ravines and in extreme climates. The book argues that Cypriot mules and mule drivers played a pivotal role in British logistics in Salonica and Constantinople, especially the former. It explores the impact of the war on Cypriot socio-economic conditions, particularly of so many men serving abroad on the local economy and society. The issues that arose for the British in relation to the contracts they offered the Cypriots, contracts offered to the muleteers, and problems of implementing the promise of an allotment scheme are also discussed. Behavioural problems one finds with military corps, such as desertion and crime, were not prevalent in the Cypriot Mule Corps. The book also explores the impact of death and incapacity on veterans and dependants, looking at issues that veterans faced after returning and resettling into Cypriot life.
Museums were an expression of the western conviction in the onward march of the rational. Local civilisations were also the prime focus in other Asian imperial museums. This is the first book that examines the origins and development of museums in six major regions if the British Empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It analyses museum histories in thirteen major centres in Canada, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, India and South-East Asia, setting them into the economic and social contexts of the cities and colonies in which they were located. Museums in Canada have a longer, though somewhat chequered, history than elsewhere in the British Empire. The Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) in Toronto and the Royal British Columbia museum in Victoria were two notable, yet very different, expressions of imperial expansiveness . The book then overviews two representative museums: the South African Museum (SAM) in Cape Town and the Albany Museum in Grahamstown. The origins and development of the National Museum of Victoria (NMV) in Melbourne, South Australian Museum (SAuM) and Australian Museum (AM) are then discussed. New Zealand/Aotearoa, with its Canterbury Museum and War Memorial Museum, has discrete origins as a colony in the nineteenth century. Imperial museums in Asia were unquestionably distinctive compared with those of the territories of white settlement. A number of key themes emerge: the development of elites within colonial towns; the emergence of the full range of cultural institutions associated with this; and the modification of the key scientific ideas of the age.
, various governments
and non-European groups as a means to participate in or reject certain
ideas about ‘modernity’ within the colonial context. It
has considered the debates surrounding the provision of missionary schooling in British governmental settings,
in international interdenominational missionary conferences, in the
writings of local non-European missionaries and in contemporaneous local
positions in government or commerce. In Ceylon, as in the many other
parts of the British Empire, local people were desired as teachers in
mission schools because of their cultural sensitivities and language
skills, and furthermore cost less to employ that Europeans. They were
also deemed to be better able to tolerate local climates. There was
also, as the LMS’s Dr John Philip had noted from his
uniform after discharge’. Their post-war predicament must have seemed to many of these soldiers to be just as coercive as active service itself, if not more so. The Repatriation Act, passed in New Zealand in December 1918, established a Repatriation Department and a Repatriation Board, with an elaborate local machinery to implement policy. The Board was responsible for training, employment and financial assistance, in accordance with the provisions of section 12 of the Act.
But the Act also detailed the strict
missions and governments in relation to mission
schools; the changing gendered focus of missionary education towards
adaptive learning in various contexts; and, finally, the concerns of how
mission education had led to denationalised locals who could undermine
both missionary as well as political modernity. The discussions
surrounding these issues reveal the tensions and collaborations between
Understanding Britain’s 1918–20 moment in the Middle East
dealing with local contexts, and its lack of centrally driven Middle Eastern policy.
Military occupation and administration of the former Ottoman Arab provinces
On 30 October 1918, on board H.M.S Agamemnon , anchored in the Greek port of Mudros and only after four days of negotiations, Admiral Calthorpe, commanding the Allied Mediterranean fleet and Rauf Bey, the Ottoman Minister of Marine, signed an armistice that formalised the surrender of the Ottoman
his opinions against
denominationalism, the need for advanced theological instruction and was
vocal in the issue of salaries for local Christian agents. 5 Education in general and
female education in particular were important topics of debate and
discussion at Edinburgh, demonstrating the shift in
missionary priorities to reach and shape non-European females through
schooling. Already before he