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Reframing Experience in Harun Farocki’s Eye/Machine Series
Alba Gimenez

Harun Farocki’s Eye/Machine (2003) is a video installation which analyses how what Farocki calls ‘the operational image’ reconfigures our visual regimes. The ‘operational image’ allows machines to operate ever more autonomously and to perform their tasks with no need for human supervision. Farocki links the birth of such operational images to the missiles with integrated cameras used during the Gulf War (1991) and therefore to military purposes. Eye/Machine poses a paradox: operational images generate a process of abstraction in which the image depicted (in the case of the war, the battlefield) gets detached from its indexical dimension, appearing as abstract and unreal. However, such detachment can be reversed when these images are recontextualised and reframed within an exhibition space, since that places them within a human experiential framework. Images, and our perception of them, are part of what Judith Butler calls the ‘extended materiality of war’. Thus, war is not only fought in the battlefield, but also at the level of the senses.

Film Studies
Technologies of Surveillance, Knowledge and Power in Paramount Budget Documents, 1927–58
William Thomas McClain

Film production at Paramount Pictures during the so-called classical era required the mobilisation of massive material and human capital that depended on institutional systems of surveillance, knowledge creation and control ranging from departmental affiliations to the pre-printed budget forms. This article focuses on those pre-printed budget forms as technologies of knowledge and power, revealing that the necessities of creating and managing coalitions of expert labourers created alternative power centres and spaces where being the object of surveillance was itself a source of power. It concludes by discussing the implications of this ecology for the historiography of Hollywood.

Film Studies
Automobility in the Greek Cinema of the 1960s
Sofia-Alexia Papazafeiropoulou

This article examines the role of automobility in the Greek cinema of the 1960s. It focuses on the representations of the automobile’s domestication in selected films. Particular attention is paid to the technical and symbolic reconstruction of space and the redefinition of socioeconomic and gender stereotypes. The article’s conclusions concern the role of the automobile in a specific period within Greek film history, as well as its place within cinema in general and in the theoretical and material construction of what is perceived as ‘modernity’.

Film Studies
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Rethinking the Familiar in Steven Soderbergh‘s The Limey
Lee Carruthers

This article complicates the notion that Steven Soderbergh‘s films are simply a refashioning of familiar materials, as evidenced by his ongoing appropriation of classical Hollywood and the European art cinema. Through a close analysis of The Limey (1999), this essay argues that Soderbergh‘s film interrogates the idea of familiarity, as such, beginning with the perceptual experience that it generates for viewers. With reference to Victor Shklovsky‘s notion of defamiliarization as well as Martin Heidegger‘s formulation of temporality in Being and Time, this discussion proposes that Soderbergh‘s reiteration of the filmic past can be seen as a meaningful event for film-critical practice that sheds new light upon issues of filmic temporality and film history.

Film Studies
Understanding Production, Humour and Political Context through Nice Coloured Girls (1987) and The Sapphires (2012)
Benjin Pollock

How Indigenous Australian history has been portrayed and who has been empowered to define it is a complex and controversial subject in contemporary Australian society. This article critically examines these issues through two Indigenous Australian films: Nice Coloured Girls (1987) and The Sapphires (2012). These two films contrast in style, theme and purpose, but each reclaims Indigenous history on its own terms. Nice Coloured Girls offers a highly fragmented and experimental history reclaiming Indigenous female agency through the appropriation of the colonial archive. The Sapphires eschews such experimentation. It instead celebrates Indigenous socio-political links with African American culture, ‘Black is beautiful’, and the American Civil Rights movements of the 1960s. Crucially, both these films challenge notions of a singular and tragic history for Indigenous Australia. Placing the films within their wider cultural contexts, this article highlights the diversity of Indigenous Australian cinematic expression and the varied ways in which history can be reclaimed on film. However, it also shows that the content, form and accessibility of both works are inextricably linked to the industry concerns and material circumstances of the day. This is a crucial and overlooked aspect of film analysis and has implications for a more nuanced appreciation of Indigenous film as a cultural archive.

Film Studies
Julius Caesar
Maria Wyke

In studio publicity, trade papers, reviews, articles, and educational materials, Joseph L. Mankiewiczs Julius Caesar (1953) was described and accepted as a faithful and mostly pleasing adaptation of Shakespearean drama to the Hollywood screen. As Variety accurately predicted, it achieved four Oscar nominations, one award for art direction and set decoration, high grosses, a hit soundtrack album, and several subsequent revivals. With the content more or less given, contemporary discussion focussed closely on how the verbal had been visualised, on how theatre had been turned into cinema – in short, on the film‘s style. It is with contemporary and subsequent readings of the film‘s style that this article is concerned, where, following David Bordwell, style is taken to mean ‘a films systematic and significant use of techniques of the medium’. But whereas Bordwell analyses film style directly in terms of an aesthetic history he considers to be distinct from the history of the film industry, its technology, or a films relation to society, I explore interpretations of one film‘s style that are heavily invested with socio-political meaning. If, in Bordwell‘s organic metaphor, style is the flesh of film, these readings of style explicitly dress that flesh in socio-political clothing. This analysis of Julius Caesar, then, is not another contribution to debates about adaptation, theatre on film, or Shakespeare on screen, but about the politics of film style.

Film Studies
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Sounding film and video
Author: Andy Birtwistle

Film sound merits study because it is an essential component of cinema. This book considers the ways in which one might come to terms with the materiality of film sound, both beyond and in relation to its semiotic or significatory dimensions. It discusses Michel Chion's proposal that any critical engagement with the film's materiality must be informed by the idea that what people term as 'the film' is marked by a relationship between sound and image. Running alongside the significatory is a parallel universe of materiality, with ways of knowing sound, and ways of registering sonic presences. Between the First and Second World Wars a series of experimental concrete sound mirrors was constructed to serve as an early warning system against airborne attack from mainland Europe. John Smith's work engages directly in a destabilisation of the model of sound-image relations that informs much of classical film practice. The book focuses on optical crackle and ground noise as sounds which signal just a sense of the past, and on the quality of compression that contributes to the sonic signature of older film soundtracks. The materiality of the strange sounds of electronica can be sounded by considering the ways in which tensions between the radical potential of noise, cinesonic codes, and the processes of history weave through the cinesonic text. Whitney Brothers' Five Film Exercises are of particular relevance to a study of the cinesonic. Cartoon sound begins with violence, or rather its threat, as evidenced by the Warner Bros. cartoons.

Open Access (free)
Beckett and television technologies
Jonathan Bignell

This chapter analyses how the aesthetics of black in Beckett's dramas for television illuminate recent theorisations of the significance of texture in television and film, and how Beckett's television dramas reflect on histories of television production and reception technologies. These changing television technologies affect how viewers can make sense of the visual textures and spatiality of the dramas, since visual style needs to be understood in relation to the materialities of production. This chapter centres on Walter Asmus's 1986

in Beckett and media
Harlots and televising the realities of eighteenth-century English prostitution
Brig Kristin and Clark Emily J.

focus from Mary as a living person to an examination of the materiality of her corpse. As when we first saw Mary hunched in the darkened alley, the scene compels us to gaze on Mary’s body through the eyes of Margaret, Nancy, and other prostitutes. Early modern English funeral rites, particularly in lower-class households, consumed the activities of those closest to the deceased. Despite the growing secularisation and

in Diagnosing history
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Sound, signification and materiality
Andy Birtwistle

in the steadily growing body of literature on sound in general, and film sound in particular. 1 Rather, the issue addressed in my own study is exactly how the sonic dimensions of film and video might be auditioned, addressed, understood and discussed. The key concern of this book is to consider the ways in which we might come to terms with the materiality of film sound, both beyond and in relation to its semiotic or

in Cinesonica