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Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

illustration, colour and accessibility is, as Mary Fulbrook suggests, a pity, particularly given the typical richness of the material and the emotional effort involved in sharing and collecting it. Fulbrook notes that while it can just be used to reconstruct a particular past, it can also be the means by which to analyse ‘the character and significance of memory itself ’, ‘strategies of remembering’ and the ‘social construction of the remembering self ’.7 The memory narratives used in this book give voice to hidden experiences and they immerse the reader in the colour and

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

little manpower and few materials, priority was given to centres of economic activity. Likewise in Brest bombed-out buildings were being used for various insalubrious purposes – rubbish tips, toilets, clandestine abattoirs – again putting children who played there at risk.7 Bombed-out towns became dirty and dangerous, and daily life, already complicated by shortages, became more difficult. But home was still home: people were reluctant to leave. In fact, many of the narrators emphasised that life carried on. Yvette Chapalain (Brest) remarked that, while her parents had

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

partly as a result of material deficiency. v 107 v Experiencing bombing Civil defence was more urgent and justifiable in combatant nations as part of a national war effort; it was much harder to maintain in France where the impetus to mobilise against an enemy was weaker. Once the bombs had fallen, organisational flaws were revealed in the Paris area, where the 3 March 1942 raid on Boulogne-Billancourt sparked a series of improvements in défense passive. While local rescue teams saved around 200 people within the first two hours, problems arose as communications were

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Abstract only
A conclusion
Lindsey Dodd

that children should have a place in histories of the Occupation, not least because they were used actually and symbolically by the Vichy regime to further its goals. No weapon affected children more than bombing, as homes were struck and evacuation ensued. It was often urban and working-class children who suffered most as they tended to live nearer to targets, and their families were less able to overcome any consequent material hardship. Exacerbating problems of hunger and cold, bombing contributed to the poor state of French children’s health during wartime; it

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

marked the adults they became? What was the nature of this bombing? Were people prepared for it? How did they adapt to it? How did people tolerate and survive the chaos devastation brought? Which children understood why it was happening to them? v4v Introduction How do survivors view bombs and bombers today? And why does this subject have such a low profile in public discourse on the Second World War in France, and yet a strong place in personal and local memory? To answer these questions, I examined archival material from municipal and departmental archives from the

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Christoph Menke

procedures. This is because the material, or the content and “stuff,” of the legal procedures are deeds that pertain to other social forms of communication. By subjecting this material to the requirement of its procedures, law thus establishes its own normative framework as the necessary condition for the social acceptability of all other forms of social communication. This does, of course, not advocate (as Morgan rightly states) “replac[ing] the other practices” (p. 149); however, it does mean (as Morgan, in my 218 218 Reply view, wrongly denies) that law “trumps” the

in Law and violence
Lindsey Dodd

, permitting a focus on purposeful suffering, a common theme in children’s publishing.32 Children were told to turn their backs on the material world and to lead a moral, spiritual life.33 To demand greater sacrifice seemed quite hard, however, given the extent of family separation and penury. For many, there was little to give up. The idea was that individual children could, and should, contribute, through hard work and suffering now, to a better future. They could bring about national regeneration. Yet nothing advised them about how to handle war. They were ascribed agency

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Lindsey Dodd

people, Sonia’s family was not bereaved by the Allied bombing; thus Allied air raids were less prominent in memory, which was dominated by other hardships. These perspectives illustrate v 204 v Friends, enemies and the wider war the way in which ordinary people experience political events: ultimately, the wellbeing of those upon whom they depend materially and emotionally shapes how such events are lived and remembered. The narrators also weighed their own experiences of bombing against those of people elsewhere. Michèle Martin (Boulogne-Billancourt) said that English

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45
Daniel Loick

not follow the mainstream of political philosophy in basing the need for violent enforcement of law on a Hobbesian anthropology: law’s authority to use coercion is not derived from a need to protect men from each other. Rather, Menke discovers a genuinely emancipatory reason not to get rid of the violent dimension of law. His basic argument is that only a law that has material forces at its disposal can be a tool for the 106 106 Responses struggle against social domination: “The law needs to remain violence,” he writes, “in order to critically intervene into

in Law and violence
Abstract only
Lindsey Dodd

-shelters being dug in public parks, and the censuses that were v 55 v Expecting bombing taken of bomb-proof cellars provided early contact with personnel of the Défense Passive. Some householders received deliveries of sand during September 1938 as a protection against incendiaries.14 The official material of the Défense Passive was supported by a wider unofficial discourse on aerial attack evident in the advertising strategies of companies selling fire extinguishers or escape ladders, and through new, higher insurance premiums for wartime.15 Chemical warfare appeared to be

in French children under the Allied bombs, 1940–45