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This collection interrogates the representation of humanitarian crisis and catastrophe, and the refraction of humanitarian intervention and action, from the mid-twentieth century to the present, across a diverse range of media forms: traditional and contemporary screen media (film, television and online video) as well as newspapers, memoirs, music festivals and social media platforms (such as Facebook, YouTube and Flickr). The book thus explores the historical, cultural and political contexts that have shaped the mediation of humanitarian relationships since the middle of the twentieth century. Together, the chapters illustrate the continuities and connections, as well as the differences, which have characterised the mediatisation of both states of emergency and acts of amelioration. The authors reveal and explore the significant synergies between the humanitarian enterprise, the endeavour to alleviate the suffering of particular groups, and media representations, and their modes of addressing and appealing to specific publics. The chapters consider the ways in which media texts, technologies and practices reflect and shape the shifting moral, political, ethical, rhetorical, ideological and material dimensions of international humanitarian emergency and intervention, and have become integral to the changing relationships between organisations, institutions, governments, individual actors and entire sectors.

Abstract only
John Shepherd

Chapter Six Media coverage On 22 January 1979, Tony Benn noted in his diary: ‘Today was the Day of Action for local government employees and 1.25 million workers took the day off. The press is just full of crises, anarchy, chaos, disruption – bitterly hostile to the trade union movement. I have never seen anything like it in my life.’1 At the peak of the ‘winter of discontent’, the National Day of Action became the greatest industrial stoppage since the General Strike of May 1926. On 22 January 1979 around 1.5 million public sector workers took part in major

in Crisis? What crisis?
Understanding perceptions of Muslims in the news

This book considers how the coverage of Islam and Muslims in the press informs the thoughts and actions of non-Muslims. As media plays an important role in society, analysing its influence(s) on a person’s ideas and conceptualisations of people with another religious persuasion is important. News reports commonly feature stories discussing terrorism, violence, the lack of integration and compatibility, or other unwelcome or irrational behaviour by Muslims and Islam. Yet there is little research on how non-Muslims actually engage with, and are affected by, such reports. To address this gap, a content and discourse analysis of news stories was undertaken; verbal narratives or thoughts and actions of participants were then elicited using interviews and focus groups. The participant accounts point towards the normativity of news stories and their negotiated reception patterns. Individual orientations towards the media as an information source proved to be a significant factor behind the importance of news reports, with individually negotiated personal encounters with Muslims or Islam further affecting the meaning-making process. Participants negotiated media reports to fit their existing outlook on Islam and Muslims. This outlook was constructed through, and simultaneously supported by, news reports about Muslims and Islam. The findings suggest a co-dependency and co-productivity between news reports and participant responses. This research clearly shows that participant responses are (re)productions of local and personal contextuality, where the consequences of socially constructed depictions of Islam and Muslims engage rather than influence individual human thoughts and actions.

Towards a frame- building model
Marina Dekavalla

130 6 Framing referendum campaigns in the media: towards a frame-​building model This chapter proposes a new model to analyse journalistic frame-​building in the context of highly contested referendum campaigns, based on the insights generated in previous chapters. This model systematises the aspects proposed in the previous chapter as encouraging the reproduction of frames promoted by political sources and their reframing through the strategic game frame. It also combines these findings with what we know from previous research on other referendums in different

in Framing referendum campaigns in the news
Lucy Michael

The role of media in facilitating or hindering integration is often underestimated, or at best, narrowly imagined. Racist discourses produced in national and local news media indicate and often encourage hostility towards migrants. Moreover, their reading by migrants is part of the context for decision-making post-migration, of housing, education and employment, of safety and rights. For the children of migrants in particular, racist discourses which define them as ‘outsiders’ present a significant barrier to developing a strong sense of

in Immigrants as outsiders in the two Irelands
Marina Dekavalla

84 4 The media framing of the referendum This chapter explores the relative prominence of different frames in the news coverage of the campaign through content analysis in two media: television and print newspapers. It first operationalises each of the frames identified, by explaining what elements in the texts were used as indicators, or evidence of the presence of each frame in the analysis. It then discusses the selection of outlets for each medium and the samples analysed. Overall the analysis included sixty-​four hours of news and current affairs

in Framing referendum campaigns in the news
Laurens de Rooij

This research offers an important discussion of the audience's perspectives and reactions to their experience of Muslims and Islam in the media. Emerging clearly are a number of issues related to current media practices, including the importance of media on daily lived experiences, and the negotiation of meaning by participants in their media practices. Often the dominant issue in the news is Muslim terrorism and violence. This is consequently considered to be an important subject among the participants, and that is commensurable with their

in Islam in British media discourses
Michael Breen, Michael Courtney, Iain Mcmenamin, Eoin O’Malley, and Kevin Rafter

3 The media and political change This chapter assesses three broad perspectives on how the Irish media has covered political change in Ireland over almost fifty years. The first, which we call ‘hypercritical infotainment’, emphasises the media as a collective agent of change. According to this approach, the media shifts from passive reporting of politics to framing it as a political competition and adopting a negative tone towards politics. This, in turn, imposes a media logic on politicians, who become more interested in spin and soundbites than policymaking

in Resilient reporting
Toby Fricker

the rapid influx of people, the Jordanian government opened Za’atari refugee camp in late July 2012, with support from the Jordan Hashemite Charity Organisation, United Nations agencies and other partners. 3 In the harsh conditions of Jordan’s northern desert, Za’atari rapidly became a massive aid operation and at the same time the media face of not only the refugee crisis in Jordan but across the

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Laurens de Rooij

Muslims to ones of white hegemony, nationalism, imperialism, and the place of minorities in Britain as one that should be defined by the pre-existing population and not by the minorities themselves. Edward Said stated in 1987 that there were a number of essential themes associated with Muslims. 2 We can conclude that when it comes to Muslims in the British media today some of those same tropes are still currently used. I will discuss the ones most common in my research here. Even

in Islam in British media discourses