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Paul Hindle

Public Works in Medieval Law (1915 and 1923) have a rich collection of contemporary accounts of the maintenance of bridges, ditches and rivers as well as roads. He coined the memorable phrase that ‘the King’s Highway made and maintained itself’,6 and noted that there was no legal distinction between a king’s highway (via regia) and a common road (via communis). The first article to attempt to study the road network (by Sir Frank Stenton) was not published until 1936.7 A few new roads were built; for example, in 1278 Roger Mortimer was charged by Edward I to enlarge and

in Roadworks
Hybridity of environment in Bald’s Leechbook
Lori Ann Garner

treated in connection with congenital deafness, its relative omission here is hardly surprising. Evidence outside the medical texts, however, suggests that such deafness was met, at least in some documented instances, with compassion and acceptance. Beyond Bald’s Leechbook The insights from Bald’s Leechbook offer meaningful context for references to hearing and deafness outside the medical texts as well. As we shall see, early medieval law codes, for instance, show support for those experiencing deafness or

in Hybrid healing
Andrew Hadfield

above, p. 36. 28 On Langland's apocalypticism and its derivation from a variety of sources, including oral ones, see Kathryn Kerby-Fulton, Reformist Apocalypticism and Piers Plowman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990). 29 For details of medieval law courts, see Anthony Musson, Medieval

in Literature and class
Abstract only
The problem of exemplary shame
Mary C. Flannery

potential for rape existed in medieval law as well as in literature. As Barbara Hanawalt has observed in her study of crime in early fourteenth-century England, a woman's social condition could affect the probability of her attacker's indictment for rape: ‘If the woman involved was a young girl, a virgin, or a noble or very high status woman, indictment was likely. But if she was of low status or some slur could be put upon her, the jury would not indict or the case would end in acquittal.’  26 (A similar link may still be

in Practising shame
Dylan Foster Evans

names’, in Hubert N.  Savory (ed.), Glamorgan County History, vol. 2:  Early Glamorgan (Cardiff:  Glamorgan County History Trust, 1984), pp.  456–92 (pp. 462–3). On sarn, see Melville Richards, ‘Welsh sarn “road, causeway” in place-names’, Études Celtiques, 11:2 (1966–7), 383–408. 27 C. T. Flower (ed.), Public Works in Medieval Law, 2 vols, Publications of the Selden Society 32 and 40 (London: Quaritch, 1915 and 1923), vol. 2, p. xvi. 28 David Harrison, The Bridges of Medieval England:  Transport and Society 400–1800 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2004), pp. 222–3. 29

in Roadworks
Roads and English law, c. 1150–1300
Alan Cooper

forms’.62 The practical result of this is that anyone who occupies any part of either the via regia or the via publica is considered to have made a purpresture against the king.63 In short, the via regia was a matter of ‘common welfare’, was ‘dedicated solely to some public use’, was ‘the common of all’ and could not be possessed by any individual. These ideas together imply that use defines status: if everybody uses a road in common, it is public and thus the king has jurisdiction over it as protector of the public welfare. And so, in late medieval law, the test of

in Roadworks