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Lynne Layton

the particular ways of being, doing, loving possible for a White middle-class girl versus a White working-class girl – but the two are constituted in relation to each other as well as to other race, class, and gender identity positions. Thus, there are many social characters in a culture, and how they relate to one another is crucial to understanding how the socio-economic order functions. Influenced by

in Clickbait capitalism

The well-being of Europe’s citizens depends less on individual consumption and more on their social consumption of essential goods and services – from water and retail banking to schools and care homes – in what we call the foundational economy. Individual consumption depends on market income, while foundational consumption depends on social infrastructure and delivery systems of networks and branches, which are neither created nor renewed automatically, even as incomes increase. This historically created foundational economy has been wrecked in the last generation by privatisation, outsourcing, franchising and the widespread penetration of opportunistic and predatory business models. The distinctive, primary role of public policy should therefore be to secure the supply of basic services for all citizens (not a quantum of economic growth and jobs). Reconstructing the foundational has to start with a vision of citizenship that identifies foundational entitlements as the conditions for dignified human development, and likewise has to depend on treating the business enterprises central to the foundational economy as juridical persons with claims to entitlements but also with responsibilities and duties. If the aim is citizen well-being and flourishing for the many not the few, then European politics at regional, national and EU level needs to be refocused on foundational consumption and securing universal minimum access and quality. If/when government is unresponsive, the impetus for change has to come from engaging citizens locally and regionally in actions which break with the top down politics of ‘vote for us and we will do this for you’.

Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Smiles and Victorian moralism
Alison Hulme

Puritans. Besides, as the nineteenth century progressed, this specifically religious motivation for thrift became more aligned to a general sense of social morality typified by Victorian middle-​class attitudes. As Yates and Hunter put it, Puritan thrift gave way to ‘classic thrift’ –​an emphasis on the morality of the individual’s financial behaviour (2011). They argue that it was at this moment that ‘thrift and this [pan-​Protestant] ethical sensibility gradually detached themselves from the Puritan providentialist cosmology that originally underwrote them. Thrift in

in A brief history of thrift
Ariane Agunsoye
,
Michelle Groenewald
,
Danielle Guizzo
, and
Bruno Roberts- Dear

, even if, as in Alex’s case, they had not engaged with it in school. Erika, who identifies as Japanese American and middle class with working-class family members , recalled the life her grandmother experienced on a low income with cancer as being a motivating factor for choosing economics, as she wondered at that time

in Reclaiming economics for future generations
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Alison Hulme

which thrift has been used by those with influence to enhance or rally against capitalism(s). A by-​product of this shift from thrift as thriving (ethical thrift), to thrift as frugality (moral thrift) is that (with a few exceptions) it has gradually been prised away from actually belonging to people as a practice of everyday life that can be used wilfully, tactically and sometimes as resistance. Instead, it has become rationalised as part of socio-​economic arguments made by early capitalists, religious thinkers who tied their beliefs to capitalism and middle-​class

in A brief history of thrift
Cheolung Choi

2021. 18 The household debt-to-disposable income ratio increased from 107% in 2003 to 136% in 2012 and reached 174% in 2021. 19 This increase in household debt was largely due to an increase in mortgage lending to the middle class, as well as an increase in loans for subsistence to the working class and the poor. As loan-shark businesses targeted low-income families, millions defaulted because they

in Clickbait capitalism
The financial fixers come to town
Aeron Davis

-political goals. On the one side was a tougher, more enforcing Treasury, focused on reining in spending departments and ambitious ministers. On the other were political leaders determined to keep taxes down but also growth on track, public spending stable and floating middle-class voters onside. This meant that politicians and Treasury officials had to look for creative financial solutions to fill the growing gap. So came the era of government fixers, intermediaries and magic money trees: the high-level accountants, the business consultants and financiers

in Bankruptcy, bubbles and bailouts
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Making sense of what has happened over thirty-five years
Russell Southwood

by the idea that parts of sub-Saharan Africa had a growing middle-class and ‘bottom-of-the-pyramid’ opportunities. However, those who invested in middle-class investment sectors, like retail and Pay TV, got very mixed results for their money. Nevertheless, the ‘success story’ was infectious and had its effect on Africans themselves: ‘The mobile revolution has given hope to Africans that they too can be dynamic and innovative players in the global economy.’  3 Overall

in Africa 2.0
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Keynes, consumer rights and the new thrifty consumers
Alison Hulme

) and upon its publication immediately inspired a political mass movement in which ‘Bellamy Clubs’ were set up to discuss and put into action the book’s ideas. Thorstein Veblen’s Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), whilst broadly aligned to Marxist thought in some ways, was in others a treatise in favour of individualism in that he saw conspicuous consumption as un-​American because it encouraged the working and middle classes to copy the style of the upper classes rather than seek their own social status, prestige and happiness. Yet the combination of these three

in A brief history of thrift
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Frugality, de-growth and Voluntary Simplicity
Alison Hulme

have experienced enough in order to voluntarily simplify! Even its own members acknowledge this. As a result, the movement is overwhelmingly white and middle-​class. Both Elgin and Mitchell’s (1977) and Linda Pierce’s (1996–​ 1998) studies found simplifiers to be almost entirely Caucasian, female, highly educated, living in urban or suburban areas, and in their thirties or above with no children living at home. In the Pierce study, 64 per cent were married but 61 per cent had no children living at home. As Schor points out, it is also the case that many voluntary

in A brief history of thrift