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Ireland in a global world
Series: Irish Society

Migration to and from Ireland is often the subject of definitive claims. During the 1980s, migration from Ireland was most commonly described as a brain drain. Despite the constant flows and counterflows, academic studies tend to focus on just one direction of movement, reflecting dominant concerns at particular points in time. The 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. This book addresses the three key themes from a variety of spatial, temporal and theoretical perspectives. The theme of networks is addressed. Transnational loyalist networks acted both to facilitate the speaking tours of loyalist speakers and to re-translate the political meanings and messages being communicated by the speakers. The Irish Catholic Church and specifically its re-working of its traditional pastoral, lobbying and development role within Irish emigrant communities, is discussed. By highlighting three key areas such as motives, institutions and strategies, and support infrastructures, the book suggests that the Irish experience offers a nuanced understanding of the different forms of networks that exist between a state and its diaspora, and shows the importance of working to support the self-organization of the diaspora. Perceptions of belonging both pre- and postmigration encouraged ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. Finally, the book provides insights into the intersections between 'migrancy' and other social categories including gender, nationality and class/position in the labour hierarchy.

Michaela Benson

1 Explaining migration This chapter introduces the migrants, broadly outlining their sociological characteristics, and providing some initial insights into their individualized ­migration stories. In this manner, I draw attention to the migrants’ accounts of their lives before migration, to demonstrate the diverse contexts that motivated relocation and to reveal their different circumstances (familial, economic, age) at the time of migration. What was particularly striking was the homogeneous class background of my respondents in the Lot, who originated

in The British in rural France
Abstract only
Mary Gilmartin

2 Mapping migration When Ernest Ravenstein published his ‘laws of migration’ in 1885, he illustrated his findings with a series of maps (Ravenstein 1885). Most of the maps show where internal migrants in the United Kingdom lived: these included maps of ‘the national element’, ‘the Irish element’, ‘the Scotch element’ and ‘the English element’. But one map attempts to show the movement of migrants (see Figure 2.1). It is entitled ‘Currents of Migration’, and at first glance it is difficult to make sense of. The map is in black and white and hand drawn, and is a

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century
Aspirations, experiences and trajectories

Africans have long graced football fields around the world. The success of icons such as Samuel Eto’o, Didier Drogba and Mohamed Salah has fuelled the migratory projects of countless male youth across the African continent who dream of following in their footsteps. Using over a decade of ethnographic research, African Football Migration captures the historical, geographical and regulatory features of this migratory process. The book uncovers and traces the myriad actors, networks and institutions that impact the ability of children and youth across the continent to realise social mobility through football’s global production network. This sheds critical light on how young people are trying to negotiate contemporary barriers to social becoming erected by neoliberal capitalism. It also generates original interdisciplinary perspectives on the complex interplay between structural forces and human agency as young players navigate an industry rife with commercial speculation. A select few are fortunate enough to reach the elite levels of the game and build a successful career overseas. Significantly, the book vividly illustrates how for the vast majority, the outcome of ‘trying their luck’ through football is involuntary immobility in post-colonial Africa. These findings are complemented by rare empirical insights from transnational African migrants at the margins of the global football industry and those navigating precarious post-playing-career lives. In unpacking these issues, African Football Migration offers fresh perspectives on the transnational strategies deployed by youth and young men striving to improve their life chances, and the role that mobility – imagined and enacted – plays in these struggles.

The intersections of language, space and time
Bettina Migge
and
Mary Gilmartin

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 199 11 Unbounding migration studies: the intersections of language, space and time 1 Bettina Migge and Mary Gilmartin Introduction: disciplinary borders As the foreign population of Ireland grew at unprecedented rates, it began to receive much academic attention. This early academic work, predominantly located within sociology, social policy and education (see, for example, Devine, 2010; Fanning, 2007),2 has shaped the study of contemporary migration to Ireland in two important ways. The first is through the

in Migrations
Paul Darby
,
James Esson
, and
Christian Ungruhe

Introduction In setting out the broad theoretical approach and conceptual tools that we employ in this book, this chapter opens with an overview of the state of academic inquiry into transnational African football migration. Our aim is not to engage in an exhaustive review of the extant literature. Rather, we provide a flavour of those issues and themes that have featured on the research agendas of a growing number of scholars working in this field. The focus of our treatment of this literature is on the schism between

in African football migration
A critical study of social media discourses
Marie Sundström
and
Hedvig Obenius

8 Marie Sundström and Hedvig Obenius (De-)legitimation of migration: a critical study of social media discourses ‘She is old and sick and will not live for many more years, you have to be humane by letting her stay and not be so damn bureaucratic (two angry smileys)’.1 The quote comes from a comment adding to a discussion on Facebook about the case of Sahar, a 106-year-old woman whom the Swedish Migration Agency denied a permit to remain in Sweden.2 The Agency argued that despite Sahar’s old age and poor health, there was no reason for her not to return to the

in Refugees and the violence of welfare bureaucracies in Northern Europe
Work in an age of mobility
A. James Hammerton

5 Migration and career stories: work in an age of mobility ‘I think it was just a challenge to try and get a job that would probably give us a better life financially’ (David Spencer, emigrated to Sydney 1970, returned to England, 1975).1 One of the newer trends driving British migration patterns of the last four decades, evident in previous chapters, has been a quest for adventure, for global experience and the forging of new lifestyles. Migrants frequently say that this stemmed from dissatisfaction with less material elements of life in Britain, from

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S
Enrico Pugliese

10  Enrico Pugliese International migrations and the Mediterranean Introduction: the Mediterranean migration scene and its evolution In recent decades the Mediterranean has witnessed an expansion of the migration routes and exchanges taking place within its shores and a parallel modification of the actors involved, of the areas where the most relevant processes occur, and of the economic, political and military drivers that activate the movements and determine the direction of travel. Within this frame migrations are at the same time the effects of events that

in Western capitalism in transition
The push and pull of private life
A. James Hammerton

6 Family, love, marriage and migration: the push and pull of private life ‘In the end, family is what matters, not the place you live’ (Barbara Totten, emigrated to Perth 1981).1 If work, career and opportunity have been primary drivers of migration, dynamics of family and marriage have been no less powerful in shaping migrants’ life stories. Family priorities can eclipse career in the quest for a new life, and migrations sparked initially by work or adventure can be vulnerable to unanticipated turns in family relationships. The rising tide of divorce from the

in Migrants of the British diaspora since the 1960S