All aboard the migration nation
Across the eras of boom and bust, public culture in Ireland has consistently had something of the airport bookshop about it. If it’s not quite true
that there is no I in Ireland, highly publicised, motivational books and
media events unflaggingly invited us Irish to recognise ourselves in the
fairground mirror of popular typologies, and, once snugly interpellated,
to be resilient, forward-looking and flourishing. In 2013, New Thinking
= New Ireland1 set out to top up the national reserves of confidence
other faiths and denominations in the West and black–white racial tensions in the South. 2
The ‘Great Migration’ of 1915–25, during which some 1.25 million blacks left the South to settle in major urban centres of the North like New York and Chicago, was another issue that attracted the attention of white Americans. In the South, planters feared that they would be left with insufficient labourers to farm their lands. In the North, industrialists may have welcomed the migrants, as a vital addition to the expanding factory workforce, but ordinary city dwellers were
This book provides a sense of the continuing debates about postcolonialism while seeking to anchor some of its key themes and vocabularies securely. It takes as its primary focus, the various reading practices which distinguish and characterise much of the field - practices which for the purpose of this book attend chiefly to literary texts, but which can be applied beyond a strictly literary context to other cultural phenomena. The book introduces some major areas of enquiry within postcolonialism, as well as offers concrete examples of various kinds of relevant reading and writing practices. It provides a brief historical sketch of colonialism and decolonisation, providing the intellectual contexts and development of postcolonialism. The book approaches various attitudes towards nationalist representations in literary and other writings during the busy period of decolonisation in the 1950s and 1960s. It then deals with national traditions and national history, and the conflict between national liberation and imperialist domination. Divisions within the nation such as ethnicity, language, gender and eliteness which threaten the realisation of its progressive ideals are discussed, with attention on Partha Chatterjee's narrative of Indian nationalism and Chinua Achebe's novel Anthills of the Savannah. Other discussions include the re-reading of literary 'classics', the re-writing of received literary texts by postcolonial writers, postcolonial feminist criticism, and migration and diaspora in the context of decolonisation. The 'STOP and THINK' section in each chapter identify focal points of debate for readers to pursue critically.
The blossoming of interest in black history since the 1950s was directly linked to the rise of Martin Luther King and the post-Second World War Civil Rights Movement. The advances achieved in desegregation and black voting rights since the 1950s suggested that this was a destination that King's children, and African Americans as a whole, would ultimately reach. In the inter-war years there were indications that some scholars were willing to examine the more depressing realities of black life, most notably in a series of academic studies on lynching. The book discusses the approach of Du Bois to the academic studies on black migrants from a sociological perspective. When African American history began to command more serious attention in the mid-1960s, the generation of historians who had had direct personal experience of the Great Depression and the Second World War began to reach the age of retirement. The book also examines the achievements of race leaders like Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael, the Black Power Movement and Black Nationalism of the 1960s. In a 1996 study, political scientist Robert C. Scholarly debate on the African American experience from the 1890s through to the early 1920s gathered momentum with fresh studies on the spread of racial segregation and black migration to the cities. The rise of feminism and popularity of women's history prompted academic researchers to pay attention to the issue of gender in African American history. Stereotyped depictions of African Americans in US popular culture are also discussed.
Tony Dundon, Miguel Martinez Lucio, Emma Hughes, Debra Howcroft, Arjan Keizer, and Roger Walden
relation to the subject of equality (or rather institutional and structured inequality and institutional responses to it) and related issues in employment, looking in particular at labour migration and gender inequality in relation to worker influence, outlining some of the complex and contradictory developments of recent changes in the role of the state.
The chapter applies a WES perspective to widen our view of how the body of worker rights has shifted and contributed to the challenges and changes in the forms of worker voice. It recognises the fundamental
Migration, colonialism and decolonisation
It seems an obvious point that the British Empire was an international affair. Through the work of colonialism countless people voyaged out from Britain, often settling around the world in a variety of different places – the Americas, the South Pacific and elsewhere. But significant too were the voyages in by colonised peoples from around the world who travelled to the major European empires where many remained for the rest of their lives. Often these voyages took place under duress, as in the instances of
, such as the Great Migration, 1915–25, or lynching, attracted the attention of the wider American public.
During the 1950s and 1960s the spread of more liberal attitudes and values, reflected in the rise of Martin Luther King and the post-war Civil Rights Movement, inspired scholars to investigate the African American past. They eloquently portrayed the historical sufferings of black communities and felt moral outrage at such racial injustice in a way that would have been incomprehensible for many earlier scholars, who saw such inequalities as natural and inevitable
Aura’. In: Catalogue of the 27th
Biennial of Graphic Arts: Exhibitions of Reproducible
Art , ed. mglc International Centre of Graphic
Arts. Ljubljana: International Centre of Graphic Arts, 68–81 .
Latour , Bruno and Lowe , Adam.
2010 . ‘The Migration of the
Aura or How to Explore the Original Through its Facsimiles’.
trend in the late nineteenth century as tens of thousands of Chinese left China. The Qing had strict rules as to who could travel overseas and for how long, although it was impossible to enforce these rules rigorously across its extensive coastlines. The chaos of the Opium Wars and the Taiping Rebellion distracted local governments and thus had made it easier for people to leave China. Migration had always been an option: war, natural and manmade disasters and changes of regime had driven thousands of Chinese to southern China ever since the fourth century. When
The Anglosphere, England and the Brexit referendum
movement of labour and the movement of asylum seekers and refugees had already been made to good effect by UKIP since 2009. This linkage became of critical importance after the EU’s ‘migration crisis’ in the summer and autumn of 2015. As a result of the crisis of political will about the correct response to the humanitarian crisis across the EU, the Daily Mail claimed that ‘Three-quarters of adults said a rigorous Australian-style points system for people coming to the UK from outside the EU would be a successful method of curbing migration’ (Slack, 2015 ). This issue