bridges in spite of not being placed on a large river testifies to the extensive network of canals that hydrated, powered, and cleansed it and its people. 13
Migration from the countryside into Bologna, beginning back in the tenth century, was specially intense and continuous all through the twelfth century and first half of the thirteenth. In this earlier phase migration was essentially spontaneous and unregulated. However, by 1246 the commune felt a need to address the disequilibrium between the overcrowded city and the undermanned
From the mid-nineteenth century through to the First World War, the Jewish world was re-shaped by mass migration resulting from a combination of factors – demographic and economic as well as the impact of persecution and discrimination. It was a part of a wider global shift in population from south to north and east to west that reflected the (uneven) impact of a new economic age and the forces of modernity that accompanied it.
It is, however, especially the movement of
Leif Eiriksson, the 1893 World’s Fair, and the Great Lakes landnám
Amy C. Mulligan
American Midwest in particular. While books and translations were most influential in getting the story of Viking America out – figures like the popular Norwegian-American scholar Anderson were doing much to promote the stories of Leif Eiriksson and a Nordic America that went back to the Middle Ages – performances, staged spectacles, and audience experiences of staged recreations of medieval events, spaces, and voyages cemented the migration of the Viking landnám onto Lake Michigan.
The story begins in 1880, when a ninth-century Viking ship was uncovered in a burial
The Rotuli de Dominabus et Pueris et Puellis de XII Comitatibus of 1185
Susan M. Johns
’s names in post-Conquest England: observations and speculations’,
Speculum, 80 (1978), 223–51.
Postles, ‘Baptismal name’, pp. 1–52.
C. B. Bouchard, ‘Patterns of women’s names in royal lineages, ninth–eleventh centuries’, Medieval Prosopography, 9: 1 (1988), 1–32, and see eadem, ‘The migration of
women’s names in the upper nobility, ninth–twelfth centuries’, Medieval Prosopography, 9:2 (1988), 1–19.
Nineteen in total, Appendix 2: 2, 14, 15, 17–18, 25, 27, 35, 39, 41, 43, 47, 55–7, 63, 77, 78,
83, 103, 107.
M. Le Pesant, ‘Les noms de personne à Évreux du XIIme au XIVme
, professional people such as scholars, doctors and clergy, prosperous traders and skilled craftspeople, and numerous semi- and unskilled workers involved in commerce, manufacturing and agriculture. Some came as refugees escaping economic, political or religious turmoil in their homelands, and a few may have come as forced labour. Most, though, arrived as a result of self-determination, facilitated by the general openness of borders and encouraged by the perceived opportunities that migration might bring. Their host communities in England occasionally remarked on their
This book is a study of the history and memory of Anglo-Jewry from medieval times to the present and explores the construction of identities, both Jewish and non-Jewish, in relation to the concept of place. The introductory chapters provide a theoretical overview focusing on the nature of local studies. The book then moves into a chronological frame, starting with medieval Winchester, moving to early modern Portsmouth, and then it covers the evolution of Anglo-Jewry from emancipation to the twentieth century. Emphasis is placed on the impact on identities resulting from the complex relationship between migration (including transmigration) and the settlement of minority groups. Drawing upon a range of approaches, including history, cultural and literary studies, geography, Jewish and ethnic and racial studies, the book uses extensive sources including novels, poems, art, travel literature, autobiographical writing, official documentation, newspapers and census data.
Whilst the arrival of people from the constituent parts of the British Isles was clearly a considerable feature of life across medieval and early modern England, it was only part of the wider process of migration into England across this period. Of the 5,106 aliens taxed in 1440 whose nationalities can be readily identified, some 38 per cent (1,936) came from elsewhere within the British Isles and the Channel Islands. However, this leaves almost two thirds of immigrants taxed in 1440 originating from further afield – and some considerably further. The
,000 alien taxpayers from Scotland represented one in every two hundred people in their homeland. The best guesses suggest that Wales had about 200,000 inhabitants at this time. 59 The detailed ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors that determined the level of migration to England may well have been different for those from Wales. Assuming for present purposes that the proportions moving were roughly equivalent, we can posit that there were around 1,000 Welsh-born people in England in 1440 who would otherwise have been made liable to the alien subsidy. Our running total therefore
cities and raged on, with intervals, for nine years. 130 The alien subsidy assessments carried out in 1483, the year the revolt started, also provide us with one of the most extensive censuses of alien, and particularly ‘Dutch’, artisan activity both in London and in certain other English cities and towns. This raises the possibility that the migration of skilled craftsmen overseas, recorded in these 1483 assessments, was just a temporary response to political problems at home, and that numbers would have tailed off once the political position was again stable. After
the emigration of labourers and servants to England in denuding the lordship of the necessary people to work the land. 22 Thrupp claimed that Scots and Irish immigrants, ‘familiar at home with cattle and sheep, had reason to stay mostly in the North and West, as this was pastoral country’. 23 However, Bolton has questioned this, suggesting instead a strong system of ‘chain migration’ for skilled Irish people entering England through Chester, Bristol and other ports of the South-West. 24 While some stayed in those port towns, many would have migrated eastwards