Reclaiming Migration critically assesses the EU’s migration policy agenda by directly engaging the voices of Europe’s so-called migrant crisis that otherwise remain unheard: those of people on the move. It undertakes an extensive analysis of a counter-archive of testimonies co-produced with people migrating across the Mediterranean during 2015 and 2016, to document the ways in which EU policy developments both produce and perpetuate the precarity of those migrating under perilous conditions. The book shows how testimonies based on lived experiences of travelling to – and arriving in – the EU draw attention to the flawed assumptions embedded in the deterrence paradigm and policies of anti-smuggling; in protection mechanisms and asylum procedures that rely on simplistic understandings of the migratory journey; and in the EU’s self-projection as a place of human rights and humanitarianism. Yet, it also goes further to reveal how experiences of precarity, which such policies give rise to, are inseparable from claims for justice that are advanced by people on the move, who collectively provide a damning critique of the EU policy agenda. Reclaiming Migration develops a distinctive ‘anti-crisis’ approach to the analysis of migratory politics and shows how migration forms part of a broader movement that challenges the injustices of Europe’s ‘postcolonial present’. Written collectively by a team of esteemed scholars from across multiple disciplines, the book serves as an important contribution to debates in migration, border and refugee studies, as well as more widely to debates about postcolonialism and the politics of knowledge production.
how much of a shock the referendum result was. People who did not usually talk about politics were engaged, excited or scared. The referendum followed years of high levels of migration from Eastern Europe into the city. There were Polish and Russian neighbourhoods and Polish shops. There were some native-born who resented it. However, there were others who welcomed it. Employer Alan stressed what he perceived as the greater desirability of migrants as employees. He was pleased that migration from Eastern Europe had brought in ‘lively, educated people’.
The limits of the EU’s external dimension of migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
The EU–Africa migration partnership:
the limits of the EU’s external dimension of
migration in Africa
Tine Van Criekinge
The intensification of migratory movement between Africa and Europe
since the early 2000s has encouraged renewed political engagement
from the EU towards the continent. This engagement has mainly taken
the form of migration dialogue between the European Union (EU) and
migrant-sending countries in Africa, aiming to create channels for communication and cooperation between Europe and its southern neighbours. Dialogue with migration
How does migration feature in states’ diplomatic agendas across the Middle East? Until recently, popular wisdom often held that migration is an important socio-economic, rather than political, phenomenon. Migration diplomacy in the Middle East counters this expectation by providing the first systematic examination of the foreign policy importance of migrants, refugees, and diasporas in the Global South. Gerasimos Tsourapas examines how emigration-related processes become embedded in governmental practices of establishing and maintaining power; how states engage with migrant and diasporic communities residing in the West; how oil-rich Arab monarchies have extended their support for a number of sending states’ ruling regimes via cooperation on labour migration; and, finally, how labour and forced migrants may serve as instruments of political leverage. Drawing on multi-sited fieldwork and data collection and employing a range of case studies across the Middle East and North Africa, Tsourapas enhances existing understandings of regional migration governance in the Global South. The book identifies how the management of cross-border mobility in the Middle East is not primarily dictated by legal, moral, or human rights considerations but driven by states’ actors key concern – political power. Offering key insights into the history and current migration policy dilemmas, the book will provide both novices and specialists with fresh insights on migration into, out of, and across the modern Middle East.
out his task using a technology developed by the military: the drone.
With the drone as medium, Degnbol offers an alternative way of looking at migration, from above. With its ambiguous and distancing gaze on the humanitarian crises unfolding across the borders of Europe, he found the drone uniquely capable of mediating the scale and dehumanisation of European migration politics. Accordingly, Degnbol named his ongoing drone project Europe’s New Borders , 1 a photo series showing guarded borders, crossing points, camps, shelters, and emptied sites, all from the
‘The Arab world is now in what may be termed the Saudi epoch in modern Arab history.’
Muhammad Hasanayn Haykal ( al-Anwar , 20–23 May 1977)
Earlier in this book, we analysed in detail the extent to which the short-term migration of Egyptian professional staff featured into the workings of the Arab Cold War and Egypt–Israel rivalry, thereby constituting an instrument of Egyptian soft power in the 1954–70 period
‘International migration has traditionally been visualized as under the control (in both legal and practical terms) of the receiving country, with the role of the sending country a passive one. It now appears, however, that sending countries may have more control over outmigration than was previously thought and indeed may visualize it as a kind of “national resource,” to be managed like any other.’
Myron Weiner (quoted in Teitelbaum 1984 , 447
This chapter provides a broad introduction to the politics of migration in the Middle East, from the colonial era to the present day, paying particular attention to the importance of state policies. There are, roughly, four time periods in the evolution of the Middle East migration system that should be discussed: the colonial period, encompassing the era of the Ottoman Empire and the colonial Mandate period that ended, roughly, in the years following the end of World War Two. This is a period characterised by a rather free circulation of
previous chapters and offers an in-depth overview and assessment of the existing historiography, and addresses the extent to which there has existed a rural dimension to the integration process. An insight into the academic literature on migration, race and Muslim communities in rural Britain was offered in this book’s introduction, and there are clear overlaps with that on rural Britain more broadly. The concept of the rural idyll has meant that rural settings have overwhelmingly been perceived as being untouched by immigration and ethnic minority communities, and thus
This book explains how the relationship between the European Union (EU) and Africa has evolved in the first decade of the twenty-first century. For this, it treats the EU as a 'bilateral donor', focusing in particular on the new partnership agreement between the EU and the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) group of countries. It also treats the EU as a 'collective actor', paying special attention to the Joint Africa–EU Strategy (JAES) and a number of EU policies that affect African development beyond aid. The book first sketches the evolution of EU–Africa relations, between the adoption of the Cotonou Agreement in June 2000 and the third Africa–EU Summit held in Tripoli in November 2010. The evolution of EU-Africa relations should be set against two tracks. The first track concerns the programme managed by the European Commission. In this case, the most important change is certainly the adoption of the Cotonou Agreement, which marked a fundamental departure from the principles of the long-standing Lomé Convention. The second track concerns the attempt to create a continent-wide policy towards Africa, under the slogan 'one Europe, one Africa', which started with the first Africa–EU Summit held in Cairo in April 2000. The book also presents some contending explanations, drawing on studies of EU external relations as well as offering a perspective of Africa. It examines a number of policy areas, ranging from more established areas of cooperation to new areas of concern, such as migration, energy, climate change and social policies.