Introduction From the mid-nineteenth century through to the First World War, the Jewish world was re-shaped by mass migration resulting from a combination of factors – demographic and economic as well as the impact of persecution and discrimination. It was a part of a wider global shift in population from south to north and east to west that reflected the (uneven) impact of a new economic age and the forces of modernity that accompanied it. It is, however, especially the movement of
This book examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with unprecedented levels of Irish migration. The institutions and care-networks that these women established represented a new age in social welfare that served to connect the church with Scotland's emerging civil society. The book examines how the church reacted to liberalism, legislative reform, the rise of evangelicalism and the continued growth of Irish migration between the late 1820s and the late 1850s. A mutual aversion to the Irish and a loyalty to nation and state inspired a recusant and ultramontane laity to invest heavily in a programme of church transformation and development. The recruitment of the Ursulines of Jesus, the first community of nuns to return to Scotland since the Reformation, is highlighted as a significant step towards legitimising Catholic respectability. The book focuses on the recruitment and influence of women religious. It also focuses on the issue of identity by considering how gender and ethnicity influenced the development of these religious communities and how this was connected with the broader campaign to transform Catholic culture in Scotland. The book also examines the development of Catholic education in Scotland between the late 1840s and 1900 and prioritises the role played by women religious in this process.
This book is a study of the history and memory of Anglo-Jewry from medieval times to the present and explores the construction of identities, both Jewish and non-Jewish, in relation to the concept of place. The introductory chapters provide a theoretical overview focusing on the nature of local studies. The book then moves into a chronological frame, starting with medieval Winchester, moving to early modern Portsmouth, and then it covers the evolution of Anglo-Jewry from emancipation to the twentieth century. Emphasis is placed on the impact on identities resulting from the complex relationship between migration (including transmigration) and the settlement of minority groups. Drawing upon a range of approaches, including history, cultural and literary studies, geography, Jewish and ethnic and racial studies, the book uses extensive sources including novels, poems, art, travel literature, autobiographical writing, official documentation, newspapers and census data.
The tendency among ethnic minority Muslim immigrant communities in Europe towards identification with Islam as a marker of identity is discussed in an array of studies, but seldom have they explained sufficiently how the change took place. Islam and Identity Politics among British-Bangladeshis: A Leap of Faith probes the causes of and conditions for the preference of the members of the British-Bangladeshi community for a religion-based identity vis-à-vis ethnicity-based identity, and the influence of Islamists in shaping the discourse. It also examines whether this salience of Muslim identity is a precursor to a new variant of diasporic Islam. Islam and Identity Politics delves into the micro-level dynamics, the internal and external factors and the role of the state and locates these within the broad framework of Muslim identity and Islamism, citizenship and the future of multiculturalism in Europe.
migration to the city swelled the population. Speculative and often poor building projects created new or expanded suburbs, while the centre of the city saw the springing up of villas and apartments for the newly rich, all part of the phenomena of urbanisation and industrialisation that were sweeping across the continent. Antisemites did not see these changes in this way. Instead, driven by a combination of envy, bitterness, resentment, even anger, antisemites concocted elaborate conspiracy theories, myths that treated all of these changes as part of a plot by Jews, as
patterns of migration and immigration. 102 This, as John Inge has pointed out, raises further difficulties for cathedrals when they try to engage with the wider culture: There is a big question here about what cathedrals can do to engage with a greater proportion of the population. They are in a double bind not that dissimilar to the BBC. If they change what they offer in seeking to broaden their appeal, they will be accused of ‘dumbing down’. If they remain as they are they
Long before the mass migration of Jews to Leeds in the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the city had already become a major commercial and industrial metropolis during what Victorians called ‘the age of great cities’. Benefiting from its location at the boundary of a manufacturing region to the west and south, and an agricultural region to the north and east, by the early eighteenth century Leeds had become a thriving mercantile town as a place of exchange and commerce. The Industrial Revolution transformed Leeds, which became by the
family dinner table and at the synagogue pulpit, as much as on the pages of Jewish historiography. 7 More broadly, with migration and its discontents once again on the political agenda, understanding the way in which Jewish immigrants to Leeds defined themselves, both within and against the society around them, can be valuable to academics, policymakers and ordinary members of the public. And for anyone who calls themselves a Leeds Jew, looking at how the community took shape in the late nineteenth century can simply enrich one’s own sense of self
married women to shave their heads and wear a sheitel [wig] and for Jews to stay away from dance halls and theatres. In retrospect, the resolutions passed by the rabbis were not surprising; they show more that among the Jewish community the old practices of Eastern Europe were being discarded. Young Jews were taking to enjoy themselves in social and leisure pursuits provided by the wider community. Leeds Jews were moving ‘out of the ghetto’ both physically and emotionally. The great mass migration of East European Jews West had started in
The mass migration of Catholic Irish was a key stimulant that forced indigenous Catholics to reappraise their relationship with Scottish and British society and come up with a strategy that would allow them to join in with the social, economic and imperial ambitions of the nation and the state. This study examines the changing nature of Catholicism in modern Scotland by placing a significant emphasis on women religious. It highlights the defining role they played in the transformation and modernisation of the Catholic Church as it struggled to cope with