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Françoise breaks free?
Richard Bates

that the classes were unpaid but rather that she was only required to attend for a few hours per week, with the rest of the work to be done at home. Mothers and governesses sat in on the in-school classes, sewing at the back while the lesson proceeded. The main in-class activity was summarising the week’s lessons to prove that the pupils had worked hard at home. 29 The centre of learning was thus the home, not the school. Upper-class girls’ education emphasised subjects such as art and music, which conferred cultural

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
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Psychoanalysis in the public sphere, 1968–88
Richard Bates

psychoanalyst Donald Winnicott, who used series of 1940s BBC broadcasts to address the psychical effects of World War II on children, especially evacuees and those living apart from their parents. 2 France’s relationship with radio was transformed by the country’s experience of World War II. In the 1930s, the main attractions of French broadcasting were music and drama; coverage of news and current affairs was generally disappointing, especially on the somewhat ponderous public networks. 3 Vichy’s public radio, though it became

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Abstract only
Richard Bates

same year that Enfances was published, Pierre Bourdieu put all biographers and autobiographers on the defensive with the concept of the ‘biographical illusion’ – the coherence artificially accorded to life events by the conventions of narrative writing. Whereas real life trajectories are determined by a myriad of socio-economic and cultural factors, Bourdieu argued that (auto)biographies tend to highlight narratively seductive but ultimately irrelevant details, such as how their authors had ‘always loved music’ or

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Dolto, psychoanalysis and Catholicism from Occupation to Liberation
Richard Bates

-class women with a degree of leisure time. The magazine contained extracts from novels, book reviews, games and quizzes and articles on fashion, style and art. There were ‘make-do-and-mend’ features explaining how canny housewives could circumvent wartime shortages, such as by making jam without jars. 56 Advertisements included promotions for Linguaphone’s language-learning materials, a course in advertising design at a Parisian art school and Charles Trenet’s music. 57 It had a glossy style, with plenty of pictures and illustrations

in Psychoanalysis and the family in twentieth-century France
Jane M. Adams

‘taking the waters’ was framed within a culture of public consumption of luxury goods and entertainments including theatres, music and assemblies.6 Bath became the premier provincial pre-industrial city, and by the end of the eighteenth century was about the tenth largest town in England and Wales, only challenged by London, Dublin and Edinburgh as a centre for elite cultural life.7 By the late eighteenth century a variety of other types of urban centres, including established county towns and seaside resorts also provided a leisure infrastructure that included the

in Healing with water
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.

Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Suriname under Dutch rule, 1750– 1950

Explaining how leprosy was considered in various historical settings by referring to categories of uncleanliness in antiquity, is problematic. The book historicizes how leprosy has been framed and addressed. It investigates the history of leprosy in Suriname, a plantation society where the vast majority of the population consisted of imported slaves from Africa. The relationship between the modern stigmatization and exclusion of people affected with leprosy, and the political tensions and racial fears originating in colonial slave society, exerting their influence until after the decolonization up to the present day. The book explores leprosy management on the black side of the medical market in the age of slavery as contrasted with the white side. The difference in perspectives on leprosy between African slaves and European masters contributed to the development of the 'Great Confinement' policies, and leprosy sufferers were sent to the Batavia leprosy asylum. Dutch debates about leprosy took place when the threat of a 'return' of leprosy to the Netherlands appeared to materialise. A symbiotic alliance for leprosy care that had formed between the colonial state and the Catholics earlier in the nineteenth century was renegotiated within the transforming landscape of Surinamese society to incorporate Protestants as well. By 1935, Dutch colonial medicine had dammed the growing danger of leprosy by using the modern policies of detection and treatment. Dutch doctors and public health officials tried to come to grips with the Afro-Surinamese belief in treef and its influence on the execution of public health policies.

Treatises on farting
Guilhem Armand

not odorous’ (‘bruit sans odeur’), the ‘puff’ (vesse) or feminine fart, which is silent but scented, and the ‘navvy’s fart’ (‘pet de maçon’), which combines the two characteristics.25 From this gendered and rank hierarchy flows a virtuoso musical classification of wind into around sixty different species. This differentiates between the ‘fully voiced’ (‘plénivocal’), including ‘diphthong farts’ (‘pets diphtongues’), and the ‘semi voiced’ (‘semivocal’): Hurtaut explains that the music produced is a ‘diachrony distributed in Pythagorean terms whose chromatic scale may

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Painting and health preservation in seventeenth-century Rome
Frances Gage

plants and of recreating the body and soul through delight in colours, images and music; the verb ‘rinfrescare’ signified not only the act of cooling, but also of taking recreation or restoring oneself generally. Panaroli thereby inferred that the preservation of both body and soul through the manipulation of the perturbations or passions of the soul represented an effective mechanism of resisting the health dangers of ‘bad air’.65 Within the dominant Aristotelian and Galenic medical traditions in which Panaroli and many contemporary physicians were writing, cognition

in Conserving health in early modern culture