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The media and international intervention
Author: Philip Hammond

The first major post-Cold War conflict, the 1991 Gulf war, indicated how much had already changed. Saddam Hussein had enjoyed Western support in Iraq's war against Iran in the 1980s, but was abruptly cast as the 'new Hitler' after his invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. This book is about how the media have interpreted conflict and international intervention in the years after the Cold War. By comparing press coverage of a number of different wars and crises, it seeks to establish which have been the dominant themes in explaining the post-Cold War international order and to discover how far the patterns established prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks have subsequently changed. The key concern is with the legitimacy of Western intervention: the aim is to investigate the extent to which Western military action is represented in news reporting as justifiable and necessary. The book presents a study that looks at UK press coverage of six conflicts and the international response to them: two instances of 'humanitarian military intervention' (Somalia and Kosovo); two cases in which the international community was criticised for not intervening (Bosnia and Rwanda); and two post-9/11 interventions (Afghanistan and Iraq). There were a number of overlapping UN and US interventions in Somalia in the early 1990s. Operation Restore Hope was the first major instance of post-Cold War humanitarian military intervention, following the precedent set by the establishment of 'safe havens' for Iraqi Kurds and other minorities at the end of the 1991 Gulf war.

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Same city but a different place?
Madeleine Leonard

surrounded and sheltered by the Black and Divis mountains which are natural beauties still worth beholding. Belfast today is full of activities and festivals such as the recent Taste and Music Festival in Botanic, the Cinemagic Film Festival and the yearly continental market held at City Hall which hosts a variety of exotic foods and music bringing the world closer to

in Teens and territory in ‘post-conflict’ Belfast
David Bolton

2002, over £6 million had been received and distributed. Once the Fund was established, even more offers of support were received, along with further offers to raise funds. This led to events such as football matches in Omagh between the local football club and Manchester United, Chelsea and Liverpool clubs, and the production of music albums – the proceeds of which contributed to the Fund. The Fund

in Conflict, peace and mental health
Hallucinating conflict in the political and personal frontiers of Ulster during the IRA border campaign of 1920–22
Fiachra Byrne

hallucinations were ‘in accord with the varying emotion of defeat or victory aroused by war memories’. 69 When J. M. later heard ‘military music and the march of armed men’ Nolan also held that these auditory hallucinations were ‘drawn by war service’. 70 This belief in the imprint of biographical experience and social context on hallucinatory

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
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Stephen Benedict Dyson

. Bush agreed, and told Bremer to ‘get over there, and give us your recommendations’. 28 After the lunch, the president ushered Bremer into a meeting with the principals, saying ‘I don’t know whether we need this meeting after all. Jerry and I have just had it.’ This was music to the Ambassador’s ears: ‘His message was clear. I was neither Rumsfeld’s man nor Powell’s man. I was the

in Leaders in conflict
Samantha Newbery

from the experience’. 57 Professor Robert Daly, a member of the Royal College of Psychiatrists based in the Republic of Ireland, 58 interviewed all bar one of the detainees. He found they were much more likely to suffer from nightmares than the other men interrogated during internment. 59 Whilst in the wall-standing position, they experienced ‘various illusions, delusions and hallucinations’ including hearing music. 60

in Interrogation, intelligence and security
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Nurses from Belfast hospitals in the First World War
Seán Graffin

and had worked as a Sister in the UVF Hospital since January 1916. 57 Unfortunately, there is no comprehensive list of professional nurses who were attached to the UVF Hospital. One nurse identified is Eileen Barrance Crowe who was born in Belfast of English parents. Her father was a professor of music at Queen's University, Belfast. She had completed her training at

in Medicine, health and Irish experiences of conflict 1914–45
Heike Wieters

Korean children’s choir touring the United States. 51 It was in 1951, at the height of the Korean crisis, that CARE’s executive director Paul French came up with a rather labor-intensive publicity and fundraising strategy that involved inviting a South Korean children’s choir to the United States. The plan envisioned a nationwide music tour, which would be organized as a charity event by CARE, in cooperation with appropriate

in The NGO CARE and food aid From America, 1945–80
Peter Shirlow, Jonathan Tonge, James McAuley, and Catherine McGlynn

-sponsored initiatives in 1976. Since 1972 the UDA had been involved in local protests against housing provision and had managed a squatting campaign in Belfast. They then branched out into providing advice on housing and jobs, as well as providing opportunities for local people to engage in handicrafts and music, which caused the Sunday Times to marvel at the idea of ‘the tough UDA’ engaged in ‘nursery groups and

in Abandoning historical conflict?
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Disaster recovery and the World Trade Center
Charlotte Heath-Kelly

Oakland community’s action, the symbolic labour of disaster recovery involved prayers, large gatherings of people and visits by public officials. These activities ‘displayed accoutrements of culture’s persistence – a stage, music, cooked food’ (Hoffman 2002 : 123). Cultural items that survived the blaze (such as car keys, dishes and vases) became shrines – as did natural items, like trees. Treated

in Death and security