coined by P. A. Linehan,
‘Religion, nationalism and nationalidentity in medieval Spain
and Portugal’, in Religion and NationalIdentity , ed.
S. Mews, Studies in
Church History 18 (Oxford, 1982 ), 161–99, at p. 162.
For a detailed study of the Pelagian forgeries,
see Fernández Conde
understanding of France, and therefore of nationalidentity in general,
was rather different from that of a modern person. 16 Her country was a
vague and uncertain physical space, defined more by its association with
a specific people than by its administrative or geographical boundaries.
She consistently spoke of villages and towns, but gave little evidence
of understanding the wider administrative or political geography of the
Here, and elsewhere, the spiritual side cannot be discounted; but
it is difficult to disentangle.
Even though few new English
saints were canonised after 1300, continental cults were
imported; and numerous unofficial devotions centred on English
men (there seem to be none centred on women). 5
Saints acted as