The application of scientific techniques to diagnose the disease
infancy. Accounts of the
problems and solutions at that time influenced the protocols adopted by the
writer, for example, as only 1–2 per cent of the DNA yield that is expected
from modern samples is extracted from ancient tissues (Pääbo 1989; Pääbo
1990: 159–66; Pääbo et al. 2004). Many researchers have concentrated on targeting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as there are several hundred copies of
this genome per cell in contrast to two copies of each gene locus in the nuclear
genome (Stone et al. 1996). It also has the bonus of being inherited exclusively
instead the identification of small nuclear-family-like units.
Figure 1.2 The distribution of cemeteries mentioned in this book:
Abingdon I, Upper Thames
Apple Down, West Sussex
Beckford B, Worcestershire
Bergh Apton, Norfolk
Blacknall Field, Wiltshire
Bloodmoor Hill, Suffolk
with an added element of anxiety the future can be expected to be disastrous. The future then becomes a dystopia – an anti-utopia characterised by a breakdown of civilisation, famine, and either a nuclear winter or rising temperatures and floods. Where the Futurist wanted to pursue the speed of progress, survivalists or preppers want to prepare for the disaster by digging themselves into bunkers along with their supplies.
The relationship between progress and decay, between optimism and pessimism, has created its own genre, a genre that discusses the rise and fall
from the long-term trends that together give us the impression of a group of people who are less likely immediately to adopt a given innovation or who are willing to resist, actively and passively, in order to maintain their social, political, and technological network.
In the 1970s, Allan Mazur ( 1975 ) attempted to develop a logical explanation for the opposition to technological innovation. He studied social movements against fluoridation and nuclear energy, and came to the conclusion that most opposition stems from a perception of risk – he focused on physical
whole environments or landscapes; and from individual countries to the whole world.
The widening of heritage has entailed the inclusion of a number of expressions that refer specifically to the modern period and modernity. The physical movements of modernity by way of trains, cars, planes, rockets, and laser beams; railways, roads, airports, launchpads, and power stations – all become of interest as heritage to explore, protect, and preserve for the future. One monumental example is controversial nuclear power stations such as Barsebäck in Sweden and Ignalina in
complex uses of juxtaposed burials to define groups of graves and individual graves was seen at Great Chesterford, which was excavated in 1953–5 and revealed 161 inhumations and 33 cremations, though unfortunately only part of the cemetery had survived (Evison, 1994 ). Based on a small number of Roman cremations, Evison proposed that there had been a series of large Roman barrows on which the cemetery was focused. She went so far as to suggest that individual nuclear family units were placing their dead within particular Roman barrows. This is not a pattern that has
justify describing them as clusters of a nuclear family variety. Indeed, the graves at Morning Thorpe were extremely tightly crowded but not homogeneous, with statistically significant clustering around 1.5 m. As a result, there were four groups of graves, with a narrow but nonetheless visible gap separating them; notably, the central two groups had a particularly high density of graves ( Figure 6.4 ). As at Wakerley, these four groups (from left to right: A, B, C and D) were also associated with subtly different material culture. Notably, group A and D graves were more
Railways of India (WHL 994ter, 1999, 2005, 2008), White City of Tel Aviv (WHL 1096, 2003), Grimeton Radio Station (WHL 1134, 2004), Central University City Campus at UNAM in Mexico (WHL 1250, 2007), 17 buildings by the architect Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier (WHL 1321rev, 2016), Bikini Atoll Nuclear Test Site on the Marshall Islands (WHL 1339, 2010), Japan’s Meiji Industrial Revolution (WHL 1484, 2015), Asmara: a Modernist City of Africa (WHL 1550, 2017), eight buildings by the architect Frank Lloyd Wright (WHL 1496rec, 2019) – and many more.