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Janet Wolff

realised that England had given me the cancer in the first place. Robinson’s book indicts the Sellafield nuclear processing plant, in the English Lake District, for the contamination of the environment and the British government for its criminal negligence with regard to safety laws and procedures. According to Robinson, ‘Sellafield is the world’s largest source of radioactive contamination’. She offers this startling contrast: The release of radiation from Three Mile Island is usually estimated at between fifteen and twenty-five curies of radioactive iodine. Many

in Austerity baby
Open Access (free)
Design and material culture in Soviet Russia, 1960s–80s
Author: Yulia Karpova

The major part of this book project was funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 700913.

This book is about two distinct but related professional cultures in late Soviet Russia that were concerned with material objects: industrial design and decorative art. The Russian avant-garde of the 1920s is broadly recognised to have been Russia’s first truly original contribution to world culture. In contrast, Soviet design of the post-war period is often dismissed as hackwork and plagiarism that resulted in a shabby world of commodities. This book identifies the second historical attempt at creating a powerful alternative to capitalist commodities in the Cold War era. It offers a new perspective on the history of Soviet material culture by focusing on the notion of the ‘comradely object’ as an agent of progressive social relations that state-sponsored Soviet design inherited from the avant-garde. It introduces a shared history of domestic objects, handmade as well as machine-made, mass-produced as well as unique, utilitarian as well as challenging the conventional notion of utility. Situated at the intersection of intellectual history, social history and material culture studies, this book elucidates the complexities and contradictions of Soviet design that echoed international tendencies of the late twentieth century. The book is addressed to design historians, art historians, scholars of material culture, historians of Russia and the USSR, as well as museum and gallery curators, artists and designers, and the broader public interested in modern aesthetics, art and design, and/or the legacy of socialist regimes.

This book analyses the use of the past and the production of heritage through architectural design in the developmental context of Iran. It is the first of its kind to utilize a multidisciplinary approach in probing the complex relationship between architecture, development, and heritage. It uses established theoretical concepts including notions of globalism, nostalgia, tradition, and authenticity to show that development is a major cause of historical transformations in places such as Iran and its effects must be seen in relation to global political and historical exchanges as well as local specificities. Iran is a pertinent example as it has endured radical cultural and political shifts in the past five decades. Scholars of heritage and architecture will find the cross-disciplinary aspects of the book useful. The premise of the book is that transposed into other contexts, development, as a globalizing project originating in the West, instigates renewed forms of historical consciousness and imaginations of the past. This is particularly evident in architecture where, through design processes, the past produces forms of architectural heritage. But such historic consciousness cannot be reduced to political ideology, while politics is always in the background. The book shows this through chapters focusing on theoretical context, international exchanges made in architectural congresses in the 1970s, housing as the vehicle for everyday heritage, and symbolic public architecture intended to reflect monumental time. The book is written in accessible language to benefit academic researchers and graduate students in the fields of heritage, architecture, and Iranian and Middle Eastern studies.

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A problematic development
Fanny Lopez

becoming keywords – taking root has become too great a risk – everything must henceforth be movable to avoid destruction. 3 Autonomy and autarky clearly appear here as the strategic vocabulary of war. Everything had to be impermeable and unsinkable, on Earth as on Mars or in a nuclear environment. Among the handful of projects that were just sketched or drawn, without any programmatic or technical details, is the autonomous house by the architect M. Perenic in 1975, built in an unsettling lunar landscape, justifying the apprehensions of Peter Buchanan (see Figure

in Dreams of disconnection
Jane Roscoe and Craig Hight

Monty Python tradition). The film is a satire which targets the social and political implications of the nuclear balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union. Released during the early 1960s, it represents a particular critique of the military and political practices which largely defined the relationship between the two superpowers. The overall theme of the film (the irrationality of

in Faking it
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Kuba Szreder

also be said that in artistic circulation it is totally normalised not to have kids, and to establish a variety of non-standard relations, experimenting beyond the model of the typical, heterosexual, nuclear family. It is extremely important in societies exposed to authoritarian backlash, such as Poland (which at the end of 2020 enacted a total ban on abortion, in an abhorrent feat of right-wing ideology), which aims at casting women solely in the roles of child-bearers and mothers. But, as Angela Dimitrakaki argues, the problem with the → neoliberal arrangement of

in The ABC of the projectariat
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Caroline Turner and Jen Webb

Gandhara sculpture of the period.41 Hashmi is concerned not only with the condition of the cultural and political world, but also the physical environment: she is a known activist who protests against the development of nuclear weapons, and condemned the nuclear tests conducted by India and Pakistan in 1998. After Pakistan exploded its bomb, she said, ‘I had people calling me up and saying, “We have done it. We have gone into the nuclear age”.’ Her response was: ‘We will live to weep this dawn.’42 153 154 Art and human rights 5.2 Salima Hashmi, The People Wept at

in Art and human rights
Open Access (free)
Tania Anne Woloshyn

-depth studies did not occur until the 1940s, due in part to rising interest in radiation research in the forms of radiation biology and nuclear power. As Sally Dunne Romano discussed, it was only in the 1950s and 1960s that the medical community and the public came to fully accept ultraviolet light’s carcinogenic power, which grew in part due to larger, generic fears about ‘radiation’, ‘cancer’, and their ambiguous meanings. 161

in Soaking up the rays
Masculine subjects in Ravi Varma’s scholar paintings
Niharika Dinkar

tharavad. Voiced in newspapers and magazines and also in contemporary Malayalam literature, it pointed to an embarrassment with the ‘promiscuous polyandry’ of the Nayar women, a view that British anthropological accounts had popularised.63 The call for a transformation in the matrilineal structure sought legal reform to garner property rights for men through the Malabar Marriage Act, which was eventually passed in1896. It proposed a nuclear family model that allowed for monogamous conjugal relations with Nayar men and also responded to the needs of modern Nayar men

in Empires of light
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Genesis of a new technical utopia
Fanny Lopez

-Reconstruction house of the future would absorb the period’s consumer and futuristic imagination and appear as a housing unit that incorporated all of the new technologies. In the same way as cars, there were dream kitchens, dream bathrooms. But was there dream home equipment, an ideal energy infrastructure? The most celebrated postwar houses of the future, such as the House of the Future by the Smithsons (1956) or the Monsanto House (1954–57), offered a few answers. They were heightened by the fear and hopes of the birth of civil nuclear power, whose rapid development

in Dreams of disconnection