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A critical security appraisal
Marianne Hanson

T HE A SIA -P ACIFIC IS ONE of the most intensely nuclearized regions in the world. It is the only region where nuclear weapons have been used in attack, it has elicited grave international concern about nuclear proliferation – namely in India, Pakistan and North Korea – and it is home to three key recognized nuclear weapon states, China

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
The view from New Delhi
Rajesh Rajagopalan

Two decades after the Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests, international concern about nuclear stability in the region has subsided significantly. Early concerns about a nuclear arms race in the region and resultant instability, as well as expectations about nuclear escalation, have largely been shown to be unfounded. Both India and Pakistan have continued to expand their nuclear arsenals, but at a measured pace. And though there is an action–reaction dynamic even in nuclear arms between the two sides, it

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
James Johnson

How can we best conceptualize AI and military technological change in the context of nuclear weapons? Despite being theoretically and politically contested to this day, the notion of ‘strategic stability’ has proven a useful intellectual tool for analyzing the potential for new, powerful, and technically advanced weapons to undermine stability between nuclear-armed adversaries. 1 The concept entered into the nuclear lexicon during the early 1950s and is inextricably connected to the strategic thinking and

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Regional strategic dilemmas and U.S. policy approaches toward India
Frank O’Donnell

The global nuclear order appears to be under significant pressure as of early 2020. This order is defined as the web of international arms control agreements anchored around the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), and supported by norms against use of nuclear weapons and nonproliferation. At seemingly every stage in its history, the order has featured scholarly assessments that it is in some form of crisis. 1 However, the simultaneous converging developments since 2017 are jeopardizing the system

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
Conventional and alternative security scenarios
Roland Bleiker

on threats, such as nuclear brinkmanship, to gain concessions from the international community. The latest such attempt began in the autumn of 2002, when Pyongyang admitted to a secret nuclear weapons programme and subsequently withdrew from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). From that point the situation rapidly deteriorated. By early 2003 both the US and North Korea

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
James Johnson

Will AI-augmented technology increase the risk of military escalation between great military rivals? 1 This chapter argues that the fusion of AI-enhanced technologies with both nuclear and conventional capabilities will be destabilizing, and that this problem will be exacerbated by the fact that China and the US have divergent views of the escalation risks of co-mingled (or ‘entangled’) nuclear and conventional capabilities. 2 From what we know about the advances in military AI today, AI

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
James Johnson

Part III of the book includes four case studies to elucidate the escalation risks associated with AI. These studies demonstrate how and why military AI systems fused with advanced strategic non-nuclear weapons (or conventional counterforce capabilities) might cause or exacerbate escalation risks in future warfare. 1 They also illuminate how these AI-augmented capabilities would work; despite the risks associated with their deployment, great military powers will likely deploy them. Military commanders

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

Introduction The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK, or North Korea) is well known in the media and amongst policymakers in relation to its cult of personality surrounding the Kim family, abuses of human rights, and nuclear weapons programme. In recent years, the DPRK’s relationship with the United States and the Republic of Korea (ROK, or South Korea) has seen both flickers of engagement and periods of increased animosity. In 2017, US President Donald Trump was threatening the DPRK with ‘fire and fury’, but less than a year later met with North

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

Scale of Russia’s Troll Farm ’, Vice , 22 August 22 , https://news.vice.com/en_ca/article/594ekk/iran-russia-facebook-twitter-disinformation (accessed 28 September 2018) . Goldman , R. ( 2016 ), ‘ Reading Fake News, Pakistani Minister Directs Nuclear Threat at Israel ’, New York Times , www.nytimes.com/2016/12/24/world/asia/pakistan-israel-khawaja-asif-fake-news-nuclear.html?_r=0 (accessed 8 August 2018) . Guess , A. , Nyhan , B. and Reifler , J. ( 2018 ), ‘ All

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Brad Evans

scientific veracity. From the opening exhibits featuring some prehistoric hominids crouched in some dark and dank cave, to men walking on the moon shadowed by clouds of a nuclear Holocaust, so our entire history is commonly narrated as a tale of survival against the odds. That the history of the human condition is a natural history of violence is rarely questioned today. And yet, in times of extreme collapse, humans often show their very humanness, compassion and dignity, and it is often those indigenous peoples most attuned with nature who have contributed the least to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs