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Author: Ian Bellany

This book provides an introduction to the technical aspects of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. It considers nuclear weapons from varying perspectives, including the technology perspective, which views them as spillovers from nuclear energy programmes; and the theoretical perspective, which looks at the collision between national and international security involved in nuclear proliferation. The book aims to demonstrate that international security is unlikely to benefit from encouraging the spread of nuclear weapons except in situations where the security complex is already largely nuclearised. The political constraints on nuclear spread as solutions to the security dilemma are also examined in three linked categories, including a discussion of the phenomenon of nuclear-free zones, with particular emphasis on the zone covering Latin America. The remarkably consistent anti-proliferation policies of the United States are debated, and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty itself, with special attention paid to the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system, is frankly appraised.

Ian Bellany

1 Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy This chapter is about nuclear technology and the technical interconnections between commercial and military nuclear programmes. It is also about the spread of nuclear technology and the use to which it has been put by a number of states, both inside and outside the NPT, to bring them close to or even take them over the nuclear weapons threshold. The scope of nuclear energy Nuclear energy has peaceful applications and non-peaceful applications. The centrepiece of all political efforts to curb the spread of nuclear weapons

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Ian Bellany

4 Understanding nuclear-free zones The purpose of this chapter is to identify the properties of an ideal nuclear-weapon-free zone (nuclear-free zone for short) and then to compare it with actual nuclear-free zones in being or seriously proposed. An ideal nuclear-free zone should first of all be worth having; that means it should do a job of work in solving a multilateral security dilemma, by maintaining a desirable level of international security for the participating states in the face of temptations on the part of individual states within the zone to improve

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Ken Young

10 Consenting to nuclear war We can’t successfully take the position that [the British] must give us a blank check. They feel that if a strike takes off from their territory there will be one coming back the other way. Dean Acheson, August 1951 From the outset, basing the USAF atomic strike force in the UK raised questions about the circumstances under which an attack might be launched. Until 1948 it was implicitly assumed in London that some form of joint agreement would be required – implicit because of the Quebec agreement of 1943, which provided that the US

in The American bomb in Britain
Germany and NATO nuclear weapons cooperation
Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

the defence of one another. And as far as nuclear weapons cooperation goes, no alliance comes close to rivalling NATO in terms of the breadth, depth, and endurance of commitments. In this chapter, we analyse nuclear weapons cooperation in NATO through the prism of Germany’s experience. The Second World War cast a long shadow across West Germany’s attempts to reintegrate into the international community

in Partners in deterrence
Ian Bellany

2 Nuclear weapons and international security In 2000, almost every state in the world (all except Cuba, India, Israel and Pakistan) publicly subscribed once again to the principle that the spread of nuclear weapons to states not already possessing them is dangerous to international security and that it should therefore be energetically discouraged.1 The occasion was the latest review conference of the 30year-old NPT, the chief international instrument for restricting nuclear proliferation, and for reversing such proliferation as has occurred, if its Article 6

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
The view from New Delhi
Rajesh Rajagopalan

Two decades after the Indian and Pakistani nuclear tests, international concern about nuclear stability in the region has subsided significantly. Early concerns about a nuclear arms race in the region and resultant instability, as well as expectations about nuclear escalation, have largely been shown to be unfounded. Both India and Pakistan have continued to expand their nuclear arsenals, but at a measured pace. And though there is an action–reaction dynamic even in nuclear arms between the two sides, it

in The future of U.S.–India security cooperation
A critical security appraisal
Marianne Hanson

T HE A SIA -P ACIFIC IS ONE of the most intensely nuclearized regions in the world. It is the only region where nuclear weapons have been used in attack, it has elicited grave international concern about nuclear proliferation – namely in India, Pakistan and North Korea – and it is home to three key recognized nuclear weapon states, China

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Stephan Frühling and Andrew O'Neil

Nuclear weapons have been central to US alliance management in the post-1945 world. Successive administrations in Washington have sought to use nuclear weapons as a means of bolstering the credibility of US global security commitments. Yet, rather than simply being passive recipients of US nuclear reassurances, US allies in Europe and Asia have actively bargained with

in Partners in deterrence
James Johnson

How can we best conceptualize AI and military technological change in the context of nuclear weapons? Despite being theoretically and politically contested to this day, the notion of ‘strategic stability’ has proven a useful intellectual tool for analyzing the potential for new, powerful, and technically advanced weapons to undermine stability between nuclear-armed adversaries. 1 The concept entered into the nuclear lexicon during the early 1950s and is inextricably connected to the strategic thinking and

in Artificial intelligence and the future of warfare