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A typology
Benjamin J. Elton

in particular communities. Hirsch’s community in Frankfurt was a small, strong community in which he and his successors had very considerable religious control. It can be called a nuclear community, highly disciplined but numerically limited. This came about because Hirsch developed his community from a vanguard of a small number of highly committed individuals, who broke all ties with other Jewish groups in order to maintain absolute charge over their religious standards, following the policy of Austritt. As Katz argues, for Hirsch, authentic Judaism might only

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Benjamin J. Elton

pulled centrifugally 270 Post–War developments towards individual congregation so only loose synagogue confederations could be formed. Hirsch and his supporters were convinced that only small and committed groups could survive and favoured a vanguard approach leading to small and intense, or nuclear, communities. Others favoured some co-operation and led traditional groups within a wider community. In France the traditional leadership enjoyed official hegemony, but were constrained by a powerful lay leadership. The British case was different from these models. The

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
Refugees at the University of Manchester
Bill Williams

successful academic careers in Britain or the United States, some on at least the partial basis of their work in Manchester. It was in his first year in Manchester that Rudolf Peierls, later to join the Manhattan Project, wrote his first published papers in the field of nuclear physics.77 The Fellowships provided the time and space for the displaced to reassess their academic prospects and to seek out more prestigious, more appropriate or more permanent openings. Some did not remain long in Manchester. Peierls himself, one of the first Fellows, left in October 1935 to take

in ‘Jews and other foreigners’
Abstract only
The city and its people in the mid-sixteenth century
Elizabeth C. Tingle

-hand clothes.12 The social geography of Nantes resembled that of Paris; ‘fiscal notables’ were distributed unevenly across neighbourhoods and there was a ‘multi-nuclear pattern of wealth and poverty’.13 Table 2.1 Average tax assessment by parish Parish Total no. of Mean Median Maximum households assessment (livres) assessment (livres) assessment (livres) Notre-Dame St-Laurent St-Vincent St-Saturnin Ste-Croix La Fosse St-Léonard Ste-Radegonde St-Clément St-Similien St-Nicolas St-Denis 93 65 84 305 489 481 161 72 334 447 192 168 12.28 12.67 8.6 7.36 6.28 6.45 2.27 3.44 2

in Authority and society in Nantes during the French wars of religion, 1559–98
Duncan Sayer

instead the identification of small nuclear-family-like units. Figure 1.2 The distribution of cemeteries mentioned in this book: Abingdon I, Upper Thames Alfriston, Sussex Alwalton, Cambridgeshire Ancaster, Lincolnshire Andover, Hampshire Apple Down, West Sussex Asthall, Oxfordshire Barrington, Cambridgeshire Bargates, Dorset Baston, Lincolnshire Beckford B, Worcestershire Bergh Apton, Norfolk Berinsfield, Oxfordshire Bidford-on-Avon, Warwickshire Bifrons, Kent Blacknall Field, Wiltshire Bloodmoor Hill, Suffolk

in Early Anglo-Saxon cemeteries
Abstract only
Changing ministries
Carmen Mangion

with other agencies and included a sharing of the Vincentian charism with co-workers. 17 Anselm Nye in his history of the English Dominicans also points to continuity and change. The Dominicans continued their apostolate to tertiary education through a new theological training centre but also approved individual ministries with Pax Christi and the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament. 18 Much of the social justice work done by religious institutes was initially ad hoc; by the late 1980s and 1990s, after a few decades of experimentation, many religious institutes

in Catholic nuns and sisters in a secular age
Uriya Shavit and Ofir Winter

, Israeli actions – the bombing of the Iraqi nuclear reactor, the annexation of Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, the siege of Beirut and the massacre carried out in Sabra and Shatila, for which it was indirectly responsible – asserted that the Zionist enterprise is imperialistic and Arab liberals, Zionism and Israel 125 colonialist by nature. It is based on usurping foreign lands, extracting immigrants from other countries and forcing reality by force of arms. Ibrahim wrote that Israel saw the Sadat peace initiative as a notice of surrender and understood al

in Zionism in Arab discourses
Benjamin J. Elton

had deviated from tradition. These different approaches led to different organisational outcomes. Adler achieved a position of hegemony in Anglo-Jewry, in which he enjoyed the allegiance of the vast majority of British Jews of many different levels of observance, but who adhered to halakhah in their communal and institutional practices. Lerner, on the other hand, led the federation of Synagogues, a nuclear community, based on a small but more traditional group and just one of those which accepted Adler’s spiritual leadership. The members of the Federation were less

in Britain’s Chief Rabbis and the religious character of Anglo-Jewry, 1880–1970
The liturgy, the Eucharist and Christ our brother
Alana Harris

mass (which was increasingly being celebrated in English) into its constituent parts, Father Child’s third article offered an illustrated explanation of the ‘Offertory, Eucharist, Communion & Mission’ and the role of the laity within a liturgical action that permeated everyday life.140 In an illustration accompanying the article, the Eucharist is represented by showing Christ from the cross overlooking a modern-day 057-129 FaithFamily Ch 3.indd 90 04/04/2013 14:40 Gatherings at the family table91 cityscape, and the ‘mission’ of the Church embodied in a nuclear

in Faith in the family
Marian devotion, the Holy Family and Catholic conceptions of marriage and sexuality
Alana Harris

‘married love’ challenged the continuing usefulness of the ‘Holy Family’ as a model for Catholic marriage, underpinned as it was by less adaptable understandings of the nuclear family, gender roles and a continuing stress on procreation as the primary ‘end’ of marriage. The final section of the chapter charts the transition from an institutionally promoted model of the ‘Holy Family’ towards Catholics’ realisation and self-definition as an ‘Easter People’. In the immediate post-conciliar period, the institutional promotion of Marian devotions went into abeyance, with an

in Faith in the family