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Author: Ian Bellany

This book provides an introduction to the technical aspects of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. It considers nuclear weapons from varying perspectives, including the technology perspective, which views them as spillovers from nuclear energy programmes; and the theoretical perspective, which looks at the collision between national and international security involved in nuclear proliferation. The book aims to demonstrate that international security is unlikely to benefit from encouraging the spread of nuclear weapons except in situations where the security complex is already largely nuclearised. The political constraints on nuclear spread as solutions to the security dilemma are also examined in three linked categories, including a discussion of the phenomenon of nuclear-free zones, with particular emphasis on the zone covering Latin America. The remarkably consistent anti-proliferation policies of the United States are debated, and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty itself, with special attention paid to the International Atomic Energy Agency's safeguards system, is frankly appraised.

Ian Bellany

1 Nuclear weapons and nuclear energy This chapter is about nuclear technology and the technical interconnections between commercial and military nuclear programmes. It is also about the spread of nuclear technology and the use to which it has been put by a number of states, both inside and outside the NPT, to bring them close to or even take them over the nuclear weapons threshold. The scope of nuclear energy Nuclear energy has peaceful applications and non-peaceful applications. The centrepiece of all political efforts to curb the spread of nuclear weapons

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Ian Bellany

4 Understanding nuclear-free zones The purpose of this chapter is to identify the properties of an ideal nuclear-weapon-free zone (nuclear-free zone for short) and then to compare it with actual nuclear-free zones in being or seriously proposed. An ideal nuclear-free zone should first of all be worth having; that means it should do a job of work in solving a multilateral security dilemma, by maintaining a desirable level of international security for the participating states in the face of temptations on the part of individual states within the zone to improve

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Ian Bellany

2 Nuclear weapons and international security In 2000, almost every state in the world (all except Cuba, India, Israel and Pakistan) publicly subscribed once again to the principle that the spread of nuclear weapons to states not already possessing them is dangerous to international security and that it should therefore be energetically discouraged.1 The occasion was the latest review conference of the 30year-old NPT, the chief international instrument for restricting nuclear proliferation, and for reversing such proliferation as has occurred, if its Article 6

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
A critical security appraisal
Marianne Hanson

T HE A SIA -P ACIFIC IS ONE of the most intensely nuclearized regions in the world. It is the only region where nuclear weapons have been used in attack, it has elicited grave international concern about nuclear proliferation – namely in India, Pakistan and North Korea – and it is home to three key recognized nuclear weapon states, China

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Conventional and alternative security scenarios
Roland Bleiker

on threats, such as nuclear brinkmanship, to gain concessions from the international community. The latest such attempt began in the autumn of 2002, when Pyongyang admitted to a secret nuclear weapons programme and subsequently withdrew from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). From that point the situation rapidly deteriorated. By early 2003 both the US and North Korea

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific
Ian Bellany

5 United States policy on nonproliferation and the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty The history of the attitude of the United States towards the spread of nuclear weapons has been one of continuous opposition, tempered now and then by the judgement of the government of the day as to whether in particular instances the exigencies of the moment outweighed the force of the general principle. From Baruch to Eisenhower The starting point or the rough first draft for the US policy of hostility towards the spread of nuclear weapons is the Baruch Plan, presented in 1946

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Abstract only
Ian Bellany

Introduction This book is made up of a series of partially self-contained, partially overlapping chapters, each looking at an aspect of the question at hand. Each chapter attempts to illuminate the whole or a goodly part of the spread of nuclear weapons and how to curb it, but from a particular perspective. The chapters are like a series of photographs of a particular three-dimensional object taken from different angles. In one way this should make the book easier to read, in that it can be dipped into piecemeal. Even so, a reader encountering an unsupported

in Curbing the spread of nuclear weapons
Abstract only
Christoph Menke

realistic solution. In the shadow of nuclear war, the alternative to communism, it would seem utopian.”84 Therein, says Müller, lies the moment’s utopian aspect. It is not the pardon instead of the execution that is utopian, but the idea that that the pardon is the “realistic solution.” “Realistic” means possible, even probable, but not necessarily the sole possibility. What is utopian in Müller’s view, is that the pardon has the “degree of realism of the execution,” that it is just as realistic, which is to say, possible or probable, as the execution. By implication and

in Law and violence
Joseph Heller

When John F. Kennedy entered the White House, Israel’s nuclear reactor in Dimona was the subject of considerable discussion in Washington and Dean Rusk, new Secretary of State, told the State Department and US intelligence to monitor it. 1 France told the United States that it had pressed Israel into accepting the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) standard of

in The United States, the Soviet Union and the Arab– Israeli conflict, 1948– 67